Use of Carbohydrates
To release energy
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Use of Fats
Keep warm, energy release
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Define metabolic rate
Rate at which chem reactions in the body occur
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4 factors influencing metabolic rate
1) Muscle:Fat ratio 2) Genes 3) Age 4) Gender
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Use of Protein
Growths & Repair & Cell replacement
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Use of Fibre
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2 Reasons for needing different levels of energy:
Biological, i.e who they are large, small, etc. Occupation and activity, i.e running, etc
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Effects of unbalanced diet (malnourishment)
Obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure (salt), heart disease, blood cholesterol (too much fat)
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Lack of exercise leads to
decreases fat, boosts metabolic rate
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Inherited factors affecting health x 2
Metabolic Rate, cholesterol.
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3 Effects of unbalanced diet
1) Under/overweight 2) Deficiency diseases 3) Diabetes
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3 Factors influencing cholesterol
1) Diet (saturated foods have lots of LDL) 2) Genes 3) How much produced by liver.
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2 Uses of cholesterol
1) Used making cell membranes 2) Making hormones and vitamins
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Bad -- goes to cells
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Good, goes to liver
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microorganisms that enter the body and cause disease
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2x main types of pathogens
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Viruses are not...
cells (not living)
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clot wounds to stop infection
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Skin and mucus
stop some pathogens entering body
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3x Main Ways WBCs destroy viruses
1) Consuming; phagocytosis 2) Antibodies 3) Antitoxins
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Recall how Vaccination works
dead or inactive form of virus > body produces antibodies > reproduces these antibodies upon reinfection
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PROS OF VACCINATION X 2
1) Help control infection diseases, 2) Epidemics can be prevented if large percentage of population is vaccinated
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CONS OF VACCINATION X 2
1) Don't always work -- i.e don't always give immunity 2) Bad reactions to vaccinations
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Different types of drugs
Symptom relievers e.g painkillers, cures, e.g antibiotics
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Why it's hard to develop drugs that destroy viruses
Because viruses reproduce using body cells, and so it would be very difficult to kill the virus without killing the cell
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Bacterial resistance to antibiotics:
Bacterium mutates > Becomes resistant > survives > reproduces > population of resistant bacteria increases
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Investigation into Microorganisms Step 1
HOT Agar jelly is poured into petri dish
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Investigation into Microorganisms Step 2
Once jelly has cooled and set, (sterilised by bunsen burner) inoculating loops are used to transfer microorganisms to petri dish. Petri dish lid must be taped on.
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Investigation into Microorganisms Step 3
Paper discs are soaked with antibiotics and placed on agar. Resistant will grow around them, non resistant strains die.
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Temp must be kept at at school
25 DEG C -- 37 DEG C optimum for bacteria growth. Kept below this for Health reasons, so as not to grow anything potentially pathogenic.
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Semmelweis did what?
Year: 1840's Told Doctors to wash hands in antiseptic solutions. Killed bacteria on doctor's hands.
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Why Semmelweis' practices were dropped when he left.
Bacteria weren't discovered for another 20 years, so he couldn't prove why it worked.
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What is becoming more common?
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2 Dangers of bacteria
Mutations to new strains: 1) New strains could be antibiotic resistant. 2) May not yet have cure for it. Causing it to spread quickly causing an epidemic.
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Dangers of viruses
Mutation, takes time to develop new vaccines, and modern society makes it difficult to stop the spread of disease.
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5 Sense organs:
Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin
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Different receptors and stimuli
Light receptors in eyes, for light, sound receptors in ears, and balance receptors for change in position. Smell receptors, chemical stimuli, nose. Taste receptors, chemical stimuli, tongue. Skin, touch, pressure, pain, temperature.
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stimuli > receptor > sensory > relay > motor > effector > response
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Reflexes are __________ actions
Unconscious -- helping to prevent injury
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What are synapses?
Connection between two neurones. Nerve signal transferred by chemicals diffuse over the gap. New electrical signal in next neurone.
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Definition of hormones
Chemical messengers which travel in the blood to activate target cells.
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Hormones vs. Nerves
Hormone: slow, long time, generalised. Nerve: fast, short time, precise area.
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Brain, produces: FSH AND LH.
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Day 1-4: Lining of uterus breaks down (bleeding)
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Day 4-14 Lining of uterus builds up
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Egg released day 14
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Day 14-28: Lining of uterus maintained
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FSH: where produced, causes, effects
Pituitary, causes egg to mature, stimulates release of oestrogen
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Oestrogen: where produced, effects
ovaries, causes pituitary to produce LH and inhibits FSH
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LH: produced, effects
Pituitary gland, stimulates egg release on middle of cycle
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"The pill" contains
Oestrogen to inhibit FSH production, to stop egg production. Progesterone: thick cervical mucus.
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Pros of the pill
99% effective, reduces risk of some cancers
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Cons of pill
not 100% effective, side effects e.g. headaches, doesn't protect against STDs
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Some are given FSH
Pros: helps get pregnant Cons: doesn't always work, too many eggs may be stimulated resulting in multiple pregnancies.
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Give infertile couple a child
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Strong reaction to hormones, increased risk of cancer, multiple births.
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How does shoot grow towards light (phototropism)
Shoot tip exposed to light > more auxin on shaded side > cells grow faster on shaded side > shoot bends towards light
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How does shoot grow away from gravity (geotropism)
Gravity produces unequal distribution of auxin > more auxin lower side > lower side grows faster > shoot bends upwards
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Roots grow towards gravity
more auxin on lower side > extra auxin inhibits growth > cells on top elongate faster > root bends downwards
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Roots towards moisture
uneven amount of moisture > more auxin on side closest to moisture > inhibits growth on that side > root bends towards moisture
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Plant hormones uses x2
Selective weedkillers, Rooting powder
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(x4) Homeostasis controls:
Ion content, water content, sugar content, temperature
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Ion content regulated by
Kidneys, some lost in sweat
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Water lost x3 ways
skin as sweat | lungs as breath | kidneys through urine
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COLD DAY NOT EXERCISING
Sweat less, more urine, paler
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HOT DAY EXERCISING
Sweat more, less urine, more concentrated
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Body temp controlled by
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Why internal body temp is 37 DEG C
All enzymes work best at 37 DEG C
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Brain is sensitive to
Blood temperature in brain, skin temperature
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Blood sugar maintained by
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3 types of drugs
Medicinal, recreational, and performance enhancing
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Performance enhancing drugs FOR ARGUMENTS:
1) Unfair advantage 2) Not informed of health risks
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Performance enhancing drugs AGAINST ARGUMENTS:
1) Athletes have right to own decision 2) Drug free sport isn't fair anyway...
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STAGE 1 OF DRUG TESTING
Human cells in lab.
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STAGE 2 OF DRUG TESTING
Live animals. To find toxicity and best dosage.
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Human volunteers in clinical trial. Healthy volunteers (to see if side effects) > low dose for ill people > placebo & real > double blind.
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Uses of thalidomide now
Leprosy and some cancers
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Thalidomide original use
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Morning sickness, but wasn't tested as being safe for the foetus.
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Consequences of thalidomide for morning sickness
10,000 babies were affected and only about half survived
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ADAPTATIONS: Large Surface Area : Vol
Lose more heat
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Efficient with water
Concentrated urine, very little sweat.
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Layers of body fat
Thin layers of body fat and a thin coat.
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Small surface area : Vol
Minimising heat loss
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Keep heat in
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Some mmethods of deterring predators: x 4
Poisons, Warning colours, armour.
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5x Living Factors of Environmental Change
Disease, predators, prey, food, competitors
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3x Living Factors of Environmental Change
Temp, rainfall, air/water pollution
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3 x ways populations change
Pop size increase/decrease, pop distribution changes
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Competition of resources of plants x4
light, space, water, minerals
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Competition of resources of animals x4
space, food, water, and mates
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Use of lichen
Indicator of Sulfur dioxide in atmosphere
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Clean air will present... (lichen)
Lots of lichen
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Oxygen increase in a river suggests
Bacteria are using up oxygen, therefore, sewage or other contamination
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Mayfly larvae detect
Dissolved o2 in water. If lots, then water is clean.
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Mass of living material, i.e a completely dehydrated organism.
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Pyramid of biomass order of largest to smallest (bottom upwards)
Producer, Primary Consumer, Secondary Consumer, Tertiary consumer
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x3 Why biomass/energy decreases as you go up food chain
Photosynthesis takes in sun's energy, and is stored in chemicals | Respiration uses energy and releases heat | Some biomass is inedible.
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1 x thing taking CO2 out of atmosphere
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3 x things putting CO2 in atmosphere
Combustion of fossil fuels, respiration of plant and animal, decay.
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Strands of DNA
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Define sexual reproduction
Fusion of male and female gametes. There are two parents ergo the offspring will contain mixture of both parents' genes.
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Define asexual reproduction
Reproduction with no fusion of gametes, and therefore no genetic variation between parents and offspring. The offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
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Plants clone Cuttings Method
Take cutting from parent plant > plant them
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Plants clone Tissue Culture Method
Few plant cells taken > growth medium + hormones > grow into new plants, still clones.
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Recall Embryo transplant
See page 40. of CGP Core science AQA A Higher revision guide.
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Adult cell cloning
Unfertilised egg > remove nucleus > new chromosomes added to egg > stimulated by electric to divide > when becomes ball of cells > implant into adult female (surrogate). (This method was used to create Dolly the sheep.
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Pro + Con of GE
(+) Has potential for new interesting things, can create things like insulin, etc | (-) Worries about long term effects. E.g causing accidental problems in the future.
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GM Crops Pros
Increase crop yield, can engineer to contain extra nutrients, often no issues are reported
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GM Crops cons
May be unsafe, reduces biodiversity, may cause herbicide resistant weeds, etc.
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Other cards in this set
Use of Fats
Keep warm, energy release
Define metabolic rate
4 factors influencing metabolic rate
Use of Protein