Bio Unit 1

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  • Created by: Lottie_C
  • Created on: 26-03-16 18:04
Plants are adapted by
spiky prickles, thorns, poisons
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Plants compete for
water, space, minerals, mates
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Animals are adapted by
fur, body fat, camouflage
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Animals compete for
food, water, space, mates
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Animals in dry/arctic environments adapt by
surface area, thickness of coat, body fat, camouflage
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Plants in dry/arctic environments adapt by
surface area, water storage tissues, root systems
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Predator adapted by
sharp teeth, claws, beak, ability to judge size and difference
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Prey adapted by
groups for protection, stings, poison, tusks, wide field of view
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indicator species
environmental change measured by number of living organisms in an area
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what do lichens indicate
grow on trees, show how much sulphur dioxide in area
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what do invertebrates indicate
live in water, show how much dissolved oxygen in water
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intraspecific competition
competition between same species
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interspecific competition
competition between different species
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how could you lose weight
reduce amount of energy you take in by reducing amount you eat and increase energy used by doing more exercise
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factors affecting energy requirement (5)
gender, age, health, mass, activity level
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malnourished
diet not balanced
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metabolic rate
speed of your metabolism
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nutrients (7)
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fibre, water, minerals, vitamins
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measuring energy
burning food to heat water
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Inherited factors
Affect health, e.g. cholesterol
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metabolism
chemical reactions in your body
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deficiency
lack of particular nutrient
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cholestrol
make cell membranes and hormones, too much causes high blood pressure, made in liver, inherited
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FSH
pituitary gland, stimulates ovary to release oestrogen, causes egg to mature
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LH
pituitary gland, causes ovary to release egg
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Oestrogen
ovary, causes lining of uterus to thicken stops production of FSH
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Hormone
chemical messenger which travels in blood to activate target cells
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infertility
treated with hormone therapy, women given doses of FSH or LH to mature and release egg
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Contraceptive pill
oestrogen, stops maturing of egg, 21 days on, 7 days off, 99.9% effective, few side affects
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Morning After Pill
prevents fertilised egg implanting in womb
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IVF
extreme cases of infertility, success rate poor, invasive
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Auxin
plant hormone, when unevenly distributed causes plants to grow in different directions
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positive tropism
towards stimulus
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negative tropism
away from stimulus
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shoot tip
toward light, away from gravity
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roots
towards gravity, away from light
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rooting powder
makes stem cuttings quickly develop roots
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plant hormones in agriculture
weedkiller, rooting powder, commercial growth of plants
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drug
chemical substance that alters chemical reactions in body cells
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thalidomide
medicine developed as sleeping pill in 1950's, caused limb deformities in babies once used for morning sickness, banned but now treats leprosy
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placebo
no active ingredient
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anabolic steroids
performance enhancing, used to build up stamina and muscle
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stimulant
increase alertness and give you energy
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double lined trial
nobody knows whether real tablet or placebo taken
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recreational drug
acts on brain/nervous system and changes persons mood
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Statins
reduce production of bad cholesterol in blood
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withdrawal symptoms
taking away drug which causes negative symptoms like vomiting
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depressants
feel relaxed
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addiction
physical craving for drug
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gateway drug
leads on to harder drug
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pyramid of numbers
contains information on number of each individual species
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decomposition
when organism dies it releases nutrients in biomass and is broken down by detritus feeders and detrivors
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carbon cycle (8)
respiration, photosynthesis, storage of carbon products, feeding, excretion, decomposition, fossilisation, burning
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biomass
biological matter left when all water removed
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pyramid of biomass
biomass of species in total
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partial decay
1 or more condition missing
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detrivores
use external enzymes to break down into constituent parts
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conditions for fast decomposition
warmth, moist, oxygen
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energy lost by (5)
excretion, movement, incomplete digestion, keeping constant temperature, not absorbing all available energy
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Ignaz Semmelweiss
discovered doctors carried something from dead bodies to delivering babies, got doctors to wash hands
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vaccine
dead/inactive pathogen injected, stimulates WBC to produce antibodies, memory cells recognise antibodies and stay in blood, immune to future infections by this disease
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bacteria reproduction
quickly and independently reproduce
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painkiller
remove pain but don't kill pathogen, virus of bacteria
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antibiotics
combat illness by killing pathogen
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antigen
on surfaces of pathogen, trigger immune response
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antibodies
destroy 1 type of pathogen
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antitoxins
binds to toxins and neutralises them
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how do infectious diseases spread? (4)
droplet, direct contact, contaminated food and drink, break in skin
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viral infections
in host cell the old virus dies and new ones created by bursting open cells
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growing organisms
prepare uncontaminated culture of microorganisms, school 25 degrees
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mutations
mutations of pathogens produce new strains which have developed resistance to antibiotics
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White Blood Cells
consume microbes, produce antibodies, produce antitoxins
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Neurone
specialised cell that transfers information in form of electrical impulses
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effector
muscle or gland
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synapse
junction in central nervous system where chemicals causes impulses to be sent across to next neurone
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parts of a neurone (4)
cell body, myelin sheath, axon, dendrites
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motor neurone
transmit messages from brain/spinal cord to effectors
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sensory neurons
transmit messages from sense receptors to brain/spinal cord
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order of response
stimulus, receptor, sensory neurone, CNS, motor neurone, effector, response
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extremophiles
organisms with adaptations enabling them to live in extreme conditions
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environmental factors that influence where organisms live (3)
mates, space, minerals
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non living factors influencing where organisms live (3)
rainfall, oxygen levels, PH levels
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extinction
all living things adapted for survival in one environment, if that changes they may die
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measuring environmental change
oxygen meter, rain gauge, accurate max min thermometer
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homeostasis
maintenance of conditions within body which allows it to function on daily basis
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Body temp
If it rises: sweat, vasodilation, hairs lie flat. If it falls: goosebumps, hairs stand on end, vasoconstriction
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negative feedback system
constantly controlling conditions and adjusting them to change
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blood glucose
if rises insulin secreted, insulin makes cells store glucose as glycogen, if falls glucagon made so liver cells release glucose for respiration
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urea
broken proteins made by liver, acidic, mixed with water to make urine
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mineral ions
kidney, lost in sweat, if hot more retained
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water
kidneys, too hot water lost by sweat so urine more concentrated, too cool less water lost so urine less concentrated
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hormones
secreted by glands, transported in blood stream
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Asexual reproduction
no fusing of gametes, 1 parent, no variation of offspring
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sexual reproduction
fusing of gametes, genetic variation, male and female
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Nucleus
organelle containing genetic information
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gamete
sex cells
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allele
version of a gene
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gene
short section of DNA
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Chromosome
carries genetic information in nucleus
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variation
amount of differences in a group
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mutation
change in genetic material which makes new gene
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plant cloning cuttings
fast, cheap, easy
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Tissue culture
using small groups of cells from parts of plants, quick
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adult cell cloning
producing whole new animal from cell of another adult animal
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embryo transplantation
splitting apart cells from embryo and planting them into host mothers, lots of offspring
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insulin
plasmid with human insulin gene in bacteria cell
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DNA
material of inheritance
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Natural selection
variation, best adapted survive and breed, genes passed on and mutate, Charles Darwin's Theory
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Why wasn't Darwin believed?
went agains idea of God as creator, not much evidence, mechanism of genes and inheritance not discovered yet
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Lamarck's theory
based on idea that changes occur in organism during its lifetime, inherited, incorrect
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

water, space, minerals, mates

Back

Plants compete for

Card 3

Front

fur, body fat, camouflage

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

food, water, space, mates

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

surface area, thickness of coat, body fat, camouflage

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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