BIO: the history of psych

what is the greek definition of psychology?
greek for the study of the soul
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what is the scientific definition of psychology?
the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment
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who were the psychologists which were prominent in 400-300 BC? what were their principles?
Plato - invented theory of nativism, Aristotle - invented theory of empiricism (nature) i.e tabula rasa 'blank slate'
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what was the work of plato?
established nativism which argues that certain kinds of knowledge are innate
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what was the work of Aristotle?
believed in tabula rasa i.e blank slate when we are born, and argued for philosophical empiricism which means that all knowledge is acquired through experience
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who were the psychologists which were prominent in the 17th century?
Descartes - mind body dualism, Thomas Hobbes - monism
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what was the work of Thomas Hobbes?
argued the mind and the body aren't different things, the mind is what the brain does.
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what was the work of descartes?
the mind influences the body through a tiny structure called the pineal gland, concept called 'dualism' which is how mental activity can be coordinated with physical behaviour
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what was the research of Joseph Gall?
thought that brains and minds were linked by size rather than glands, found that mental ability increases with larger brain size and decreases with damage to the brain
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what is the function of Broca's area?
language production
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what is the function of wernicke's area?
language comprehension
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what is physiology and who studied it?
the study of biological processes in the human body, studied by Hermann Von Helmholtz and Wundt
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what was the work of Helmholtz?
measured how pps respond when apply stimulus to diff. part of leg & measure reaction time, longer respond when toe stimulated than thigh, diff. in times allowed to estimate how long took nerve impulse to travel to brain, mental process not automatic
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what is a stimulus?
sensory input from the environment
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who is Wundt and what did he do?
established first psychology lab, created introspection (observing one's own experiences) and structuralism (analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind)
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what is consciousness?
a ;persons subjective experience of the world and the mind
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what is functionalism and who invented it?
William James, how conscious activity (perceiving/ learning) helped an organism fit into its environment, influenced by Darwin
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what is psychoanalysis and who is it by?
Freud, study of personality and the unconscious mind and emphasis on mental structures e.g Id, ego and superego
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what is behaviourism and who invented it?
Pavlov, Watson and Skinner, all behavior, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus-response association).
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what did David Marr believe? what were the 3 stages in his theory?
he believed complex systems such as the brain, a computer or human behaviour should be understood at different levels.. 1) computational 2) algorithmic 3) implementation
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what is the computational level?
looks at what the problem to be solved actually is
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what is the algorithmic level?
what set of rules solve the problem? describes the process or set of rules and info processing operations involved (cognitive theory)
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what is the implementation level?
how are the rules physically implemented? i.e something has a similar input and output to another thing and follow similar rules of processing, but the physical implication is different
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who is the mental rotation experiment by in psychology and what is the procedure?
Shepard and Metzler - are the target and test shapes the same? measure reaction time to decide, predicted that if mental rotation is involved, RT should increase with larger rotations (cog processes take time)
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why is cognitive psychology important? what does it reveal?
limits of human info processing, systematic errors in reasoning, effects of emotion on performance, effects of interface design on use
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what does biological psychology suggest?
behaviour is a result of the structure and function of the brain and nervous system
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what was the work of Helmholtz?
measured how pps respond when apply stimulus to diff. part of leg & measure reaction time, longer respond when toe stimulated than thigh, diff. in times allowed to estimate how long took nerve impulse to travel to brain, mental process not automatic
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what is a stimulus?
sensory input from the environment
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what is consciousness?
a ;persons subjective experience of the world and the mind
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the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment

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