BIO: motivation and emotion

what is homeostasis?
mechanisms monitor internal environment and work to maintain stability or internal equilibrium
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what is thermoregulation?
the use of immediate mechanisms to maintain stable body temp. controlled by the ANS through the hypothalamus in the brain, and it contains receptors sensitive to the temperature of the blood, or other mechanisms to maintain temp i.e change behaviour
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what is in the ANS? what are each of them?
para sympathetic and sympathetic nervous system... para = rest and digest, symp = fight or flight
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how does the body respond if the temperature gets too hot?
hypothalamus activates para sympathetic nervous system, leading to vasodilation and sweating for humans and panting for animals etc
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how does the body respond if the temp gets too cold?
hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to vasoconstriction and shivering for humans and fur ruffling for animals etc
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what is the hypothalamus?
a part of the brain made up of several different nuclei and controls the ANS
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what controls the regulation of eating?
homeostasis mechanisms
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what is the set point hypothesis
if someone is deprived of food, they eat later to make up for it or if they are force fd more than they want, they reduce consumption later... brain regulates internal bodily controls to maintain a target weight
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what are the set point mechanisms?
liver, glucoreceptors of hypothalamus, cells in stomach wall, signals from adipose cells, hypothalamus control centre
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what role does the liver play in the regulation of eating?
glucose rises in your blood after a meal, some used by body some stored (glycogen/ fat), liver draws energy out of storage to turn into glucose, if not enough glucose sends hunger signals, if supply enough then sends full signal
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what role do glucoreceptors of hypothalamus play in the regulation of eating?
they are cells sensitive to glucose level in blood and the destruction of them can cause ravenous eating
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what role do the cells of the stomach wall play in eating regulation?
sensitive to nutrients dissolved in digestive juices, they send signals to stop eating behaviour as supplies are coming
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what role do signals from adipose cells have in regulation of eating?
when full of fat the cells release leptin (causes organism to stop eating) i.e signals that you don't need to make more fat. Inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY) which increases appetite
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what role does the hypothalamus control centre in the regulation of eating?
it responds to these internal cues in the body
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what is the dual centre theory?
proposes that damage to the lateral hypothalamus inhibits hunger (and eating... leads to starvation,, while damage of the ventromedial hyothalamus increases hunger and fat storage rate, leads to obesity.
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why are there so many signals for eating habits?
each signal provides a back up system incase others fail, some have short term roles (glucose-receptor) and some are long term signals (leptin).
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how is threat and aggression triggered by the ANS when prompted by external factors?
sympathetic nervous system stimulates the inner core of adrenaline gland to pour epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine into the bloodstream
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what are the gender differences in 'fight or flight'? also aggression?
women often reacting by tending or befriending in fight or flight. Males are more physically aggressive due to testosterone, women more non physically aggressive.
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what is the motive to belong?
avoid being alone (drive - reduction) and because social interactions elicit positive emotions (approach orientation)
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what is the motive to achieve?
avoid failure (drive - reduction) and desire for success (approach orientation)
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what is Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
(from least to most priority) 1) psychological needs, 2) safety and security), 3) love and belonging, 4) self esteem and 5) self actualisation
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what is the pursuit of pleasure?
incentives (intrinsically or extrinsically) pull us in a certain direction
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what is extrinsic motivation?
things that are not rewarding in themselves, but lead to rewards
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what is intrinsic motivation?
things that are themselves motivating
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what leads to motivation?
the need to maintain internal equilibrium (homeostasis) elicits drive reduction behaviours and these behaviours are triggered by internal or external cues
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what is emotion and how is it produced?
pos/neg experiences associated with particular patterns of physiological activity e.g joy or anger and is produced by interacting brain regions, bodily awareness and reinforcing stimuli
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what are feelings?
private conscious thoughts that accompany emotions
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what are moods?
generalised, diffuse states or dispositions that are less intense but last longer than emotional responses
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what was Ekman's study on emotion?
show gruesome film to Japanese and American pps, Americans show disgust both in public and private, Japanese only private... culture affects likelihood of display of emotions
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what are the 2 dimensions emotional experiences differ on?
valence - how positive/ negative the experience is and arousal - how active/ passive the experience is
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how does our body change when we are emotional?
arousal, changes in heart rate and galvanic skin response (GSR)
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what causes physiological change?
common sense/ initiative explanation - when we encounter a significant stimulus this leads to bodily changes that differ by emotion
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what is the James Lange theory? i.e?
Stimuli trigger activity in the ANS, producing an emotional experience in the brain, i.e see the bear, heart starts pounding and leg muscles contract, experience fear
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what is the cannon bard theory?
A stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the ANS and emotional experience in the brain, i.e feel fear and arousal at the same time, not one after another
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what is schacter and singer's two factor theory?
emotions are inferences about the cause of undifferentiated physiological arousal, people have same physiological response to all emotional stimuli but interpret the reaction differently on different occasions i,e trembling bc fear vs excitement
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what parts of the brain distinguish appraisal (evaluating situation) and sadness?
appraisal = activation of amygdala, sadness = subgenus cingulate
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how do emotions promote memory?
bodily arousal promotes memory consolidation
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what are the two forms of emotional regulation? explain.
cognitive reappraisal: decrease emotional response by changing the meaning of the situation, suppression - decrease extent to which we manifest emotion (expression/ behaviour)
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what is the facial feedback hypothesis?
emotional expressions can cause the emotional experience they signify i.e smiling can make you happier.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is thermoregulation?

Back

the use of immediate mechanisms to maintain stable body temp. controlled by the ANS through the hypothalamus in the brain, and it contains receptors sensitive to the temperature of the blood, or other mechanisms to maintain temp i.e change behaviour

Card 3

Front

what is in the ANS? what are each of them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

how does the body respond if the temperature gets too hot?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how does the body respond if the temp gets too cold?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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