BIO: gross neuroanatomy

what are the 2 types of neuroanatomy & brief description
1) gross =overall structures which can be seen, 2) microscopic = cellular, connections between cells
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describe the brain
a group of nerve tissues within the skull which controls the nerve system and creates thought, judgement, consciousness, memory and emotion. Weighs 1kg.
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what are the 2 parts of the nervous system?
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
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what makes up the CNS and PNS?
CNS -brain and spinal cord, PNS -somatic nervous system and automatic nervous system
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what are afferent signals?
signals arriving at the brain and spinal cord
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what are efferent signals?
signals exiting at the brain and spinal cord
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what are the afferent and efferent signals in the somatic nervous system?
aff = skin, muscles & joints send sensory signals to spinal cord & brain, eff = brain & spinal cord send signals to muscles, joints & skin
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what are the afferent and efferent signals in the autonomic nervous system?
aff = glands & internal organs send sensory signals to spinal cord & brain, eff = brain & spinal cords send signals to glands & int. organs
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what is the automatic nervous system divided into?
sympathetic nervous system and para-sympathetic nervous system
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what is the sympathetic and para sympathetic nervous system?
sympathetic prepares body for fight or flight and para sympathetic brings body back into a resting state
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what is the role of the somatic nervous system?
responsible for movement of voluntary muscles, carries nerve impulses back and fourth between the CNS, and gives sensory feedback about movement
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what are efferent neurones?
known as motor neurones, carry impulses from CNS to muscles and glands
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what are afferent neurones?
known as sensory neurones, carry info from sense organs to CNS
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what are sulci in the brain?
they are the indentations in the surface of the brain, if they're large they are called fissures
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what are Gyri in the brain?
they are the bumps in the surface of the brain
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what are the two hemispheres of the brain connected by?
the corpus callosum
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what is hemispherectomy?
when an entire hemisphere is removed to control epilepsy or injury, qateinets often lose control of body in one side but can still live with limited function
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what does lateralisation mean?
each hemisphere has different specialisations and functions
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what are the functions of the left and right hemisphere?
left = language, right = face perception, prosody (sound)
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what are gray and white matter in the brain?
gray = contains cell bodies of nerve cells, white = contains wires connecting the nerve cells
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what is surface gray matter called?
cerebral cortex
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what is the role of the cranial nerves?
they bring visual, auditory and olfactory (smell) info and control facial muscles & sensation, swallowing etc.
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what is the role of the frontal lobe?
planning, social interaction, attention and movement
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what is the role of the temporal lobe?
language object recognition and hearing
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what is the role of the parietal lobe?
spatial perception, attention and sense of touch
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what is the role of the occipital lobe?
vision
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what is the role of the cerebellum?
motor coordination and cognitive functions
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what are the layers of protection in the brain?
area between Pia and arachnoid is filled with cerebrospinal fluid and delicate connective tissue , which helps to cushion the brain and shocks to the cranium can be partially absorbed by these layers and fluid
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Card 2

Front

describe the brain

Back

a group of nerve tissues within the skull which controls the nerve system and creates thought, judgement, consciousness, memory and emotion. Weighs 1kg.

Card 3

Front

what are the 2 parts of the nervous system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what makes up the CNS and PNS?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are afferent signals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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