Bio 2

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What does the cell membrane do?
controls what enters and leaves the cell.
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What does the nucleus do?
contains DNA, instructions for the working of the cell.
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What does the cytoplasm do?
Reactions take place, jelly like substance.
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What does the mitochondria do?
tiny structures, where respiration takes place, releasing energy for cell processes
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Three structures that are only in plant cells and their structures?
Chloroplasts- photosynthesis takes place,makes food. Cell Wall- made of cellulose,supports structures.Central vacuole- contains cell sap, keeps the plant rigid.
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Do bacterial cells have a nucleus?
No
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What does the bacterial cell contain and what are the jobs?
Chromosomal DNA- carries most of the bacterial genes. Cell membrane. Flagellum- helps them move.Cell wall. Plasmid DNA- contain additional genes.
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How does a light microscope view cells?
it uses light to magnify objects, The greatest possible magnification is around x2000
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How does an electron microscope view cells?
it uses electrons to view an object. Magnifies x10million
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magnification of object equation?
magnification of eyepiece x magnification of objective
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Cells structure of DNA?
The nucleus containing chromosomes, Chromosome containing a string of genes
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What is a gene?
a short piece of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
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What is a base?
Weak hydrogen bonds that join the two stands of the double helix.
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What shape is DNA?
Double helix.
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How to extract DNA.
Object mixed with salt water and detergent which breaks open the cell and releases the DNA from the nuclei. Protease enzyme is added to the mixture and it breaks down proteins in the cell membranes and releases more DNA.
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How to extract DNA.
Ice cold ethanol is poured inside the mixture which makes the DNA separate from the liquid so that its easy to extract.
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How was DNA discovered?
Wilkins and Franklin studied the structure of DNA using xrays. Franklin studied these photos to see how the atoms were grouped. Watson and Crick interpreted data from others. Franklin photos were the final clue to build the double helix structure.
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What is meant by a genetically modified organism?
its when a gene from one organism is inserted into the DNA of another organism. The inserted gene then makes its protein in the genetically modified organism.
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Advantages of genetic engineering?
Making human insulin using GM bacteria is quicker and cheaper so more people with diabetes can be treated. 'Gilden Rice'- GM plant that contains genes from other plants that increases the production of a form of vitamin A. Could prevent illness.
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Disadvantages of genetic engineering?
A few diabetic people react badly to this insulin and need a different form. Golden rice seeds cost more than normal rice seeds so the poor cant afford to grow it.
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What are the two stages of protein synthesis?
Transcription and translation.
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Define the term mutation?
the changing of a structure of a gene. eg, the bases in DNA
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Why is the shape of a protein important?
The shape affects how the protein works.
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A change in an amino acid may...
have no effect because it doesn't change the shape, be beneficial because it makes the protein work better than before or be harmful because the shape changes and stops it working well, an example is the allele that causes sickle cell disease.
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What are enzymes and what do they do?
They are biological catalysts and they control reactions in the body.
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What is DNA replication?
One enzyme catalysts the splitting apart of the two DNA strands. a different enzyme catalysts the joining together of bases to make new strands.
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What does the lock and key hypothesis describe?
The way that the substrate fits like a key into the active site (the lock)
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How does the lock and key hypothesis explain why enzymes are specific?
Only a substrate with the right shape can fit into the active site.
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What is the optimum temperature?
The temperature that the enzymes work best at.
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What do living organisms use respiration for?
To release energy from organic molecules to
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What is the energy used for?
for growth and movement
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What is aerobic respiration?
The use of oxygen from the air to release energy from glucose.
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What are the products of aerobic respiration?
carbon dioxide and water
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What happens in diffusion?
The way in which many substances enter and leave the body, these including oxygen,carbon dioxide and small digested food molecules such as glucose.
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Definition of diffusion?
Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Particles are always moving and net movement is the sum of the movement of all particles.
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What increases when you excercise?
Your heart rate and breathing rate. The harder you exercise, the more these rates increase.
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Why do heart rate and breathing rates change?
Muscle cells are respiring faster therefore they need more oxygen and glucose and releases more carbon dioxide.
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A faster heart means...
more blood is pumped faster around the body. The blood takes oxygen and glucose to the cells faster and removes carbon dioxide faster.
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A faster breathing rate means...
oxygen can be taken into the body at a faster rate and carbon dioxide can be released faster.
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anaerobic respiration definition.
the release of energy from glucose without using oxygen.
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what does anaerobic respiration create?
lactic acid
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what is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose-> lactic acid + energy
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advantages of anaerobic respiration?
it is useful for muscle cells because it can release energy to allow muscles to contract when the heart and lungs cant deliver oxygen and glucose fast enough.
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disadvantages of anaerobic respiration?
it releases much less energy from each molecule of glucose than aerobic respiration. Lactic acid is not removed from the body and it builds up in muscle and blood, it must be broken down afer excersize.
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what does epoc stand for?
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. oxygen debt
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what is epoc?
epoc is the amount of oxygen needed after exercise has ended compared to the resting rate.
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definition of photosynthesis
photosynthesis is the process that plants use to make glucose. Light energy is used to combine carbon dioxide and water
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what is the word equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide+water --> glucose + oxygen
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what do plants adapt for photosynthesis?
some leaves have a large surface area to capture as much light as possible for photosynthesis. chlorophyll captures light energy needed. The stomata allows carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf.
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.What limits the rate of photosynthesis?
low temperature, dim light and low carbon dioxide concentrations.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the nucleus do?

Back

contains DNA, instructions for the working of the cell.

Card 3

Front

What does the cytoplasm do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the mitochondria do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Three structures that are only in plant cells and their structures?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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