Berlin

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Why was the ‘Brain Drain’ a problem for Khrushchev?
Well-educated defectors were needed to modernise the agriculture and industry. Difficult for Stalin to prove that the Soviet system was better than the West.
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What was the Staatssicherheit (STASI – state security)
Employed 850,000 secret police (operated outside the law) to monitor the population closely.122km of paper: 46.5km microfiche, 360,000 photographs, 600,000 negatives, 24,000 slides, 3,850 videos, 730 films & 99, 500 sound recordings on 6,000,000 peop
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What were the advantages of living in the East?
Cheap rent, electricity, gas, telephone charges and (reliable) Public transport.
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Why did Khrushchev challenge Eisenhower?
The ‘brain drain’ and defectors created a propaganda disaster because it proved that people preferred the Capitalist West to the Communist East. He planned to prevent this and humiliate the USA.
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What was Eisenhower’s Response?
He didn’t want to lose Berlin or start a war. Agreed to hold an international meeting to discuss Berlin’s future – Khrushchev dropped the ultimatum.
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What did Kennedy say after the Vienna conference?
‘Khrushchev, he beat the hell out of me’
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How does Kennedy prepare for War?
Additional $3.2 billion of defence spending extra $207 million on nuclear fallout shelters
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Why did Kennedy’s refusal to retreat call Khrushchev’s bluff force the Soviet leader to back down?
In 1961 the USA had almost 20 times more nuclear weapons which could reach further than Soviet weapons that couldn’t reach the USA.
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Why was Berlin Wall significant?
It stopped East Germans escaping to the West & ended the refugee crisis. It allowed Khrushchev to avoid war with America while still appearing strong and became a powerful symbol of the division of Germany & the division of Europe.
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What was the disadvantage of the Berlin Wall?
Many cut off from their family. Visits across the wall 1964 but Families only reunited 1989.
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Card 2

Front

What was the Staatssicherheit (STASI – state security)

Back

Employed 850,000 secret police (operated outside the law) to monitor the population closely.122km of paper: 46.5km microfiche, 360,000 photographs, 600,000 negatives, 24,000 slides, 3,850 videos, 730 films & 99, 500 sound recordings on 6,000,000 peop

Card 3

Front

What were the advantages of living in the East?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did Khrushchev challenge Eisenhower?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was Eisenhower’s Response?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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