Bennett-Levy & Marteau- Aims and Context/ Methodology

HideShow resource information
How can this study be placed in historical context?
Since Darwin, there has been interest in evolutionary psychology & nature-nurture debate. People who weren't fearful of danger didn't survive. Fears of animals are adaptive traits.
1 of 10
Who was Saligman (1971)?
'Biological preparedness'- an inherited predisposition to fear certain animals. Research shows animal fears aren't random. Eg spiders are feared more than flies. This explains why some animal phobias occur without any traumatic experience
2 of 10
What did Seligman do to test his theory?
Looked at the number of electric shocks needed to create a phobia of spiders/snakes compared to flowers. 2-4 small shocks=spider/snake, more large shocks=flower. People were biologically prepared to fear things which threaten survival.
3 of 10
Who was Hinde (1974)?
'Discrepancy princple'- we fear animals that differ from us eg lots of legs or slimy. Therapists support this as most chronic phobias undergoing treatment talk about how animals look or move no the real danger present.
4 of 10
What were Bennett-Levy & Marteau's aims?
-To find out whether it is the appearance/movement of animals which makes us fear them. -To find out whether these fears are due to 'biological preparedness'.
5 of 10
Reliability
:-) Standardised procedures- same questionnaire for each group, same 29 animals, same scale, all told they were harmless or injured etc
6 of 10
Internal Validity
:-( pps could have easily lied if they felt some of their fears were silly or if they felt they wanted to fit in with what they thought the majority would put- lack true results.
7 of 10
Sampling
:-) Large (113 pps) equal gender sample (G1= 34 female, 30 male G2=25 female, 24 male) Groups have a similar average age (G1=35.3 G2=35.1) :-( Opportunist sample so bias could occur, all pps were attending a health centre in Britian- no represent pop
8 of 10
Data
:-) Quantitative- Rat feared (2.08) whereas cat feared (1.03) :-) Qualitative- informal interview ugly was described as very different from humans
9 of 10
Ethics
:-) No deception, no harm (not actual animals) didn't have an already existing phobia so no psychological harm or did not make phobia worse.
10 of 10

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who was Saligman (1971)?

Back

'Biological preparedness'- an inherited predisposition to fear certain animals. Research shows animal fears aren't random. Eg spiders are feared more than flies. This explains why some animal phobias occur without any traumatic experience

Card 3

Front

What did Seligman do to test his theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who was Hinde (1974)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were Bennett-Levy & Marteau's aims?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Psychology case studies resources »