Beliefs in Society- LT5-Neo-Marxists/Weberian Theory

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 02-10-15 14:01
How is neo-Marxism a development from Marxism?
AS it maintains the Marxist thoughts that religion is an ideological force that keeps the proletariat in false class consciousness,
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However, what do Neo-Marsixts develop on Marxist arguments and an example?
They concede that traditional Marxist theory ignores a number of global examples where religion has supported the working class. e.g. the 'make poverty history' campaign is supported by all major faiths,
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What is the name of the neo-Marxist who used global examples to argue what about religion?
-Manduro, -Argues that religion can disrupt social harmony and promote social change,
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What did Maduro agree with Marxist theories about?
That in a majority of cases the church backed up the ruling party,
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However, what did Maduro argue that this wasnt always the case?
In very poor South American countries, the church was the only outlet for the peasant population,
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What has this argument led to the development of and the meaning?
Liberation Theology-Religion acting on behalf of the working class to raise issues with the ruling class,
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What does liberation theology suggest about what religion can do and an example?
-Religion can free the poor from their chains and promote revolution e.g. this could take the form of direct action against those unwilling to help the working people,
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Who is a real life example of neo-Marxism and what did he do?
-Camilo Torres, -He saw Christ as revolutionary and took up arms against the Columbian ruling party. In 1964-65, he created "The United Front of the People" before it was stopped as well as in 1964 where he joined the National Liberation Army,
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Give an organisation as an example of neo-marxism and their beliefs?
-Christian Aid, -"fighting for a world free of poverty and injustice", ,
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What have Christian Aid done recently to support Liberation theology?
-They welcome David Cameron's pledge that the UK will increase the number of Syrian refugees but believe 10,000 should be a minimum. They are "deeply disappointed" of the UK's reluctance to accept any of the half a million refugees recentl,
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Describe a former Archbishop and his role in liberation theology as an current example?
-Archbishop Desmond Tutu-An avid social rights activist who played a pivitol role in the Apatheid movement in South Africa. He has dedicated his life to campaigning for the oppressed e.g.poverty, racism,
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Who was the Italian neo-Marxist and when did he write?
Antonio Gramsci who wrote in the 1920s/1930s
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What was Gramsci aware of at the time and his views?
He was aware of the church supporting ruling-class interests, but didnt believe this was inevitable
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How did he argue religious beliefs and practices could develop?
They could develop to support and guide challenges to the ruling class, becuase the churhc, like other cultural institutions, was not directly under their control.
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What did Gramsci argue members of the working class could do?
THey could challenge the dominant class through distribution of more radical ideas,
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What is a theoretical criticsm of neo-marxism?
Weber- Neo Marxists claim that religion can cause a small amount of change within the uneuqual capitalist society. However, Weber argues that religion is reponsible for creating capitalist society,
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What does this suggest about neo-Marxist ideas?
This suggests that the neo-Marxist approach only offers a partial view on how religion functions within society,
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What is an empirical evaluation support of Neo-Marxism?
Maduro-He found in poor SOuth American countires, liberation theology was developing. E.g. priests helped the poor to establish support groups, called 'base communities' and helped workers to fight oppression under the protection of the Church.
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For the empirical evaluation, what did Priests take the lead into developing?
Priests took the lead in developing literacy programmes and educating the poor about their situation. According to Maduro, this opposition has the potential to unite the poor and cause a revolution and so social change
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What does this suggest about neo-Marxist ideas?
There is some validity in the neo-Marxist ideas,
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What type of theorist was Weber?
An action theorist,
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Describe what action theory is about?
Unlike Marxism or Functionalism, action theory is concerned with the way an individual's actions shape society. He looked at the way in which individuals' acted but more importantly the reasons for this action,
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Why does Weber's theory differ from that of other modernist thinkers?
AS he argues religion can disrupt social harmony and be a dynamic force for social change,
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What did Weber argue about the role of religion?
He argued religion created 'the spirit of capitalism' that was responsible for the economic shift towards factories,
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What three things did Weber argue religion started?
Industrialisation, urbanisation and exploitation of the working class,
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What did Weber argue started the move from feudal cottage industries to large scale factorises and therefore, religion is a force for what?
-Protestant work ethic and the spirit of capitalism -A force for social change,
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For the characterisation of the spirit of capitalism, what were their attitudes about for profits?
'Profit forever renenwed'-meaning that all profits were reinvested into better machinery and bigger factories,
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For the characterisation of the spirit of capitalism, what were their attitudes about waste?
Rejection of any waste-time and money were extremely important,
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For the characterisation of the spirit of capitalism, what were their attitudes about enjoyment?
Rejection of enjoyment-They abstained from life's pleasures
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For the characterisation of the spirit of capitalism, what were their attitudes about consumption?
The need for consumption-Instead living an austere lifestyle (fugal)l,
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For the characterisation of the spirit of capitalism, what were their attitudes about hard work and why?
They believed in hardwork as a sign of obediance and respect to God.-All humans have a calling and this is their way to please God,
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What did Calvinist Protestantism believe in?
Predestinations- meaning that a small number of followers were chosen at birth to be admitted into heaven. Financial success was a sign that a person had been accepted-'the elect'.
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Give 3 more things Calvinist Protestantism believed in?
That God was beyond human comprehension and man was an instrument of God to do his work on Earth, followers should be frugal and avoid enjoyment, -A belief that work was a calling decided by God and time wasting was against religious rules,
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What does Weber conclude?
That the success of capitalism in Western societies and a not in Eastern countries is due to the numbers of Calvinists present in Western societies- Clear link between capitlism and Protestantism,
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Therefore, what does Weber argue religion is responsible for?
For disrupting consensus and social harmony and being the catalyst for large scale social change,
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What is a theoretical support of action theory?
Neo Marxism-They back the idea suggested by Weber that religion can be a force for social change,
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However, what do neo-Marxists disagree with?
The disagree to what extent that religion can influence the make-up society's structures. Neo-Marxists believe that occasionally religion can oppose ruling class ideology,
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Therefore, what does this suggest about Weber's theory?
This suggests that the ideas have wider theoretical appeal,
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What is a theoretical weakness of social action theory?
Functionalists who view religion from a structralist perspective. They see religion as being based on consensus, binding society together by creating a collective consensus.
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Therefore, what does do Functionalists suggest about norms and values passed over by religion?
It creates social solidarity and aids social cohesion rather than any kind of wide scale social change,
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Therefore, what does this suggest about social action theory?
It only offers a partial view on how religion functions withing society,
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What is an empirical evaluation support for Weber's social action theory?
Pahl argues the underlying principles of the Protestant Work Ethic are still present today-People still value creation of wealth and still wish to possess status items, a clear indication people value trinkets over social justice,
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Therefore, what does this suggest about Weber's theory?
There is some validity in Weber's ideas.
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What is an empirical evaluation weakness for Weber's social action theory about all countries industralising?
it has been argued that there were a number of countries, Norway and Sweden, in which Calvinists were present in significant numnbers but didnt end up industrialising in the same way as much of Europe.
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What is another empirical evaluation weakness of Weber's social action theory?
There has also been question marks about the difficulty of pinning the creation of industrialisation on one reason,
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Therefore what does this suggest about Weber's ideas?
There validity of his ideas have to be questionned,
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HOWEVER, what is an example of religion failing to create social change for a contrast to both theories?
The New Christian Right,
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Who are the NCR?
A politically conservative Proestant fundamentalist group,
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What are the NCR's aims and beliefs?
To take America 'back to God' and believe in the literal truth of the Bible,
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Who argues they failed in their attempts to bring about social change and give 2 reasons why?
-Bruce, -Their views didnt agree with America's democratic values e.g. making homosexuality illegal, -They found it difficult to work with other groups, even when they were supporting the same ideas,
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What does Bruce suggest therefore about religion?
It doesnt always create change in society,
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Card 2

Front

However, what do Neo-Marsixts develop on Marxist arguments and an example?

Back

They concede that traditional Marxist theory ignores a number of global examples where religion has supported the working class. e.g. the 'make poverty history' campaign is supported by all major faiths,

Card 3

Front

What is the name of the neo-Marxist who used global examples to argue what about religion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Maduro agree with Marxist theories about?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

However, what did Maduro argue that this wasnt always the case?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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