Beliefs in Society Flashcards

Functionalism: What does Durkheim say about religion?
Religion institutions play a central part in maintaining value consensus and social solidarity
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Functionalism: According to Durkheim, what does 'Sacred' mean?
The things set apart and forbidden
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Functionalism: According to Parsons, what does 'Profane' mean?
Ordinary things that have no special significance
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Functionalism: Explain what 'Rituals' mean
Sacred rituals or practices which are performed by social groups
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Functionalism: What does Durkheim say about the Sacred and the Profane?
Sacred things create powerful feelings in believers because they are symbols representing greater power. When people worship symbols, they are worshipping society.
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Functionalism: What did Durkheim find out about the Arunta tribe/clan system? What does the tribe/clan reinforce?
Bands of kin come together to perform a ritual worship of a scatred totem. The totem is an emblem e.g. animal or plant. Totem reinforces group solidarity and sense of belonging.
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Functionalism: State an evaluation of Durkheim's research about the Arunta tribe/clan
His research was based on secondary sources
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Functionalism: What did Durkheim mean about the collective conscience? What would happen without it?
Sacred symbold represent society's shared norms, values and beliefs that make cooperation between individuals possible. Without it, society would disintegrate.
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Functionalism: State an evaluation of the collective conscience?
Different religions may cause conflict rather than consensus.
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Functionalism: What did Durkheim mean about cognitive functions of religion?
The ability to reason and think conceptually. Religion provides the concepts and categories needed for understanding the world and communicating with others. Religion is the origin of thought, reason and science.
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Functionalism: What did Malinowski say about religion? What function does religion perform?
Religion promotes social solidarity by performing psychological functions
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Functionalism: What did Malinowski say where psychological functions are present in religion?
1. The outcome is important but uncontrollable and uncertain. 2. At times of life crises.
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Functionalism: What does Parsons mean about Values and Meaning? What functions does he say that religion performs?
1. Legitimises society's basic norms and values by promoting social solidarity 2. Provides a source of meaning, answering ultimate questions e.g. why people suffer.
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Functionalism: What does Bellah say about Civil Religion in the USA?
Religion unifies society e.g. America. Civil religion is a faith in 'the American way of life.'
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Functionalism: How does Civil religion integrate society?
Involves loyalty to the nation-state and belief in God,
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Marxism: What are Marxists overall thoughts on religion?
Religion neglects negative aspects. Religion divides classes.
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Marxism: What do Marxists mean by 'Religion as ideology'?
Ideology is a belief system that distorts people's perception of reality in the interests of the ruling class.
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Marxism: How does religion legitimise class inequality? How does Religion mislead the poor?
Religion operates as an ideological weapon used by the ruling class to legitimise the suffering of the poor as God-given. Religion misleads the poor into believing they will be rewarded in the afterlife.
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Marxism: What does 'False Conscience' mean?
A distorted view of reality that prevents the poor from acting to change their situation.
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Marxism: State an evaluation of false conscienceness?
Religion ignores positive function and fails to see religion as a form of assisting.
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Marxism: How does religion alienate social classes?
It is the opium of the people. It dulls the pain of exploitation.
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Feminism: What are the key ideas feminism of religion?
1. Religious institutions are patriarchal 2. Legitimises women's subordination
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Feminism: State examples of patriarchy in religion
Places of worship, sacred texts, religious laws and customs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The things set apart and forbidden

Back

Functionalism: According to Durkheim, what does 'Sacred' mean?

Card 3

Front

Ordinary things that have no special significance

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Sacred rituals or practices which are performed by social groups

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sacred things create powerful feelings in believers because they are symbols representing greater power. When people worship symbols, they are worshipping society.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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