Behaviourist Approach

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  • Created by: Han2812
  • Created on: 30-01-14 15:09
What are the basic assumptions on the behavourist approach?
Consciousness cannot be seen + should not be studied - only observable behaviours. Behaviour is dermined by environment, and can be taught - all behaviour is learn. Animals researched - generalised to humans. Uses classical and operant conditioning
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Is this approach nurture or nature?
Nurture
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What is the LAW OF EFFECT?
Events in the environment produce rewards for some behaviours and not others. Behaviours that produce rewards are repeated, behaviours that result in punishment aren't
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Describe Operant Conditioning
SKINNER - all behaviour is learnt as a result of consequences in our environment. Two types of renforcement: POSITIVE - satisfaction, INCREASES chance of repeating the behaviour. NEGATIVE - unpleasant, DECREASES chance of repeating the behaviour
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What study is using Operant Conditioning?
Skinner Box - using a hungry rat in it. Inside was a lever, when the rat pressed it, a pellet of food was dropped onto the tray. Rat soon learned by repeating this, it would get more food (reward). It had learnt the behaviour - positively reinforced
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What are some examples of reinforcement?
POSITIVE - Praise, food, something you want or like. NEGATIVE - help to stop being nagged, being hit because of something you did wrong
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Describe Classical Conditioning
PAVLOV - Learning is due to the association of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned, reflex response. PAVLOVS DOG - learnt to associate bell with presentation of food as it was associated. UCS --> UCR. UCS + NS ---> UCR. CS --> CR
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What is a study using Classical Conditioning?
WATSON AND RAYNOR 1920, LITTLE ALBERT - paired white rat (NS) and a loud bang (UCS) which made him scared (UCR). Rat (CS) and fear (CR) became conditioned, so whenever he saw a white rat he was scared. GENERALISED he phobia to other white objects
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What are the strengths and limitations of the Behaviourist Approach?
STRENGTHS: Scientific; strong argument for NURTURE; useful practical applications. LIMITATIONS: Ignores mental processes + biological factors; principles do not account for spontaneous behaviour; animal use criticised - humans more complex
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Is this approach nurture or nature?

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Nurture

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What is the LAW OF EFFECT?

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Card 4

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Describe Operant Conditioning

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What study is using Operant Conditioning?

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