Behaviourist Approach - Phobias

What is the behavioural approach to explaining phobias?
The Two Process Model
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What is the two process model?
Mowrer - phobias learnt in 2 stages, 1. caused initially by classical conditioning 2. maintained overtime by operant conditioning
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What does classical conditioning do?
initiation of the phobia, learning through association. It involves pairing a response naturally caused by one stimulus with another, previously neutral stimulus
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In terms of classical conditioning, when are phobias are caused?
neutral stimulus (provokes fear) becomes associated with a frightening unconditioned stimulus. UCS - provokes reflex - unconditioned fear response. So NS - CS - fear - CR
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example of classical conditioning explaining phobias
person who isn't afraid of dogs, gets attacked and severely bitten and develops a phobia of dogs.
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What does operant conditioning do?
maintenance of the phobia.
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How are phobias maintained through operant conditioning?
responses learned via classical conditioning tend to fade over time (extinction) yet phobias persistant so avoidance of phobic stimulus is negatively reinforced.
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example of maintaining phobia
dog phobic goes out way to avoid situations where they may encounter dog (which causes unpleasant consequence - fear - so avoided
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what does avoiding the phobia do?
strengthens and maintains avoidance of behaviour as it successfully avoided / reduced fear / anxiety therefore it is repeated
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Advantage of Behavioural Approach to explaining phobia
Watson and Rayner - Little Albert & Resulted in effective treatment
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Disadvantage of Behavioural Approach to explaining phobia
Individual Differences & Unable to explain why some phobias more common than others & evolutionary factors & cognitive factors not considered
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What is the two process model?

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Mowrer - phobias learnt in 2 stages, 1. caused initially by classical conditioning 2. maintained overtime by operant conditioning

Card 3

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What does classical conditioning do?

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Card 4

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In terms of classical conditioning, when are phobias are caused?

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Card 5

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example of classical conditioning explaining phobias

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