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  • Created by: Dana
  • Created on: 30-04-14 20:18
Define Classical Conditioning
Learning by pairing a stimuli with a behaviour.
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Name a Study for Classical Conditioning
Little Albert (1920) 11-Month old boy called Albert. Every time Albert was given a white rat to play with, a steel bar was hit to make him jump. He then developed a phobia of rats and anything white and fluffy.
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Define Generalisation
A conditioned response occurring to a range of conditioned stimuli.
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Define Discrimination
A conditioned response only occurring to one, specific conditioned stimuli.
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Define Extinction
A conditioned response will no longer occur to the conditioned stimuli.
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Define Spontaneous Recovery
A conditioned response occurring after being extinct.
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Define Operant Conditioning
Learning behaviour through positive/negative reinforcement and punishment,
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Name a Study for Operant Conditioning
Skinner's Rats (1938) If the rat pressed a lever in the cage, a food pellet is dispersed. At first it is by accident then they associate that the level delivers food. They then press the lever deliberately. The reward of food has reinforced.
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Define Positive Reinforcement
Something pleasant is given if the correct behaviour is produced.
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Define Negative Reinforcement
Something unpleasant is taken away when the correct behaviour is produced.
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Define Punishment
Something unpleasant is given if the incorrect behaviour is produced.
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Define Primary Reinforcer
Something that satisfies a basic biological need.
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Define Secondary Reinforcer
Something that acquires a primary reinforcer but has no monetary or biological value.
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Define Behaviour Shaping
Altering an animal's behaviour step-by-step becoming more specific when behaviour is reinforced.
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What is the Social Learning Theory?
Learning through watching role model's behaviour and imitating it by modelling. Learning through watching other people being rewarded is vicarious reinforcement. Role Models -> Imitation -> Modelling -> Vicarious Reinforcement.
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Name a Study for Social Learning Theory
Bandura (1961) Children watched adults being aggressive to a bobo doll then being rewarded. The children who saw were very aggressive with the doll, the children who hadn't seen were much less aggressive.
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What does the Conscious Consist of?
Day to day awareness. Day to day memory. Makes up 1/7th of our mind.
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What does the Pre-conscious Consist of?
Dreams. Memory which are recalled when relaxed. Hides what our unconscious is storing.
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What does the Unconscious Consist of?
Blanked out memories/trauma. Survival instincts. Desires/urges. Makes up 6/7ths of our mind.
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Explain the Eros Urge
The life/survival instinct. Urge to protect your self-esteem and life.
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Explain the Thanatos Urge
The death instinct. Thrill seeking urge. Risks survival. Can be projected onto others as aggression.
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Explain the Libido Urge
Reproductive urge. The strongest urge which is the most responsible for our behaviour. Is present from birth and develops as we progress to puberty.
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Explain the Id Personality
The id is the first personality to develop, it is inborn. Operates on the pleasure principle. Seeks pleasure (Food, warmth, comfort). Avoids the unpleasant (cold, hunger, thirst). The id is selfish and wants immediate gratification. Driven by urges.
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Explain the Ego Personality
Develops from around age 2. Operates on the reality principle. Realistically plans for the future. Develops to mediate between the unrealistic and the external real world. Avoids pain, seeks pleasure with a realistic strategy.
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Explain the Superego Personality
Starts to develop from around age 3. Is influenced by parents. Develops through childhood. Fully matured at puberty. Is our conscience, stops us from doing bad. Controls morals and values. Gives us an image of our ideal self and guilt if not reached.
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Explain the Oral Psychosexual Stage
Approximately ages 0-2 years. The baby instinctively sucks. Develops trust and optimism.
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Oral Fixation?
If weaned too early the personality may become pessimistic, distrusting, cynical or aggressive.
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Explain the Anal Psychosexual Stage
Approximately ages 2-4 years. The child become aware of their bowels and controls them. Gains independence. Starts potty training. Grows in confidence.
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Anal Fixation?
Anal Retentive -> Reluctance about giving anything away. OCD. Too clean. Hoarding. Obsession of time keeping. Anal Expulsive -> Often late for things. Laid back. Artistic. Gullible. May rebel.
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Explain the Phallic Psychosexual Stage
Approximately age 4-6 years. Become aware of their genitals. Aware of sexual differences/preferences.
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Phallic Fixation?
The male experiences the Oedipus complex. The female experiences the Electra complex.
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Dream Analysis
Manifest Content -> The part of the dream that is remembered when awake. Latent Content -> The hidden meaning behind the dream.
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Projective Tests
Inkblots -> Thematic Apperception. Gives an indication about what may be in the unconscious.
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Card 2


Name a Study for Classical Conditioning


Little Albert (1920) 11-Month old boy called Albert. Every time Albert was given a white rat to play with, a steel bar was hit to make him jump. He then developed a phobia of rats and anything white and fluffy.

Card 3


Define Generalisation


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Card 4


Define Discrimination


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Card 5


Define Extinction


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