Behavioural theory: Depression

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 10-06-13 19:53
what does Lewinson suggest depression is a result of?
reduction of positive reinforcement
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what things can induce depression?
negative events such as losing your job
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why?
they reduce positive reinforcement from others (e.g. being around people that like you)
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depressed people usually become what?
less socially active
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how do friends and relatives respond to this?
they leave them alone
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who does Lewinson see being most likely to develop depression?
people lacking in social skills
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why?
because social ineptness is unlikely to bring positive reinforcement
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what did peterson find about pleasant experiences?
depressed people report having less
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what is a problem with this theory?
not everyone who has a reduction in positive reinforcement/positive experiences develop depression and vice versa. people could become depressed then withdraw and have less positive experiences
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who's study of dogs explains the theory of learned helplessness?
Seligman
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what happened in this study?
dogs restrained in a harness and given electric shocks and failed to initiate escape behaviour when the harness was taken away. they developed symptoms of depression found in humans (sluggishness, loss of appetite)
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what does this suggest?
that people give up on trying to influence their environment because they have learnt that they are helpless as a consequence over what happens to them
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which study supports this?
humans asked to perform impossible mental tasks or subjected to inescapable noise later failed to escape and gave up trying to solve the questions
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what are some more strengths?
controlled, high internal validity, extraneous variables controlled(?)
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what type of depression does learned helplessness make sense of?
reactive depression - where there is a cause
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however, what type of depression does this not help explain?
endogenous depression - depression for no reason
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what is a weakness of Seligman's study?
animals, cannot generalise to humans, (low external validity?)
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issues and debates of this study?
not ethical to torture dogs!!! but is it justified because the results were outstanding??, deterministic - all people might not give up; reductionist; focus on nurture; psychology as a science
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what things can induce depression?

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negative events such as losing your job

Card 3

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why?

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Card 4

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depressed people usually become what?

Back

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Card 5

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how do friends and relatives respond to this?

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