before and during Bolshevik Russia

Why was it important that bolsheviks had control of the soviet?
they could influence laws and decisions to benefit them and could therefore minimise opposition.
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Zinoviev and Kamenev
Members of the committee who thought it would be too risky to seize power. they feared a civil war, wrote their views in a newspaper.
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What mistakes did Kerensky make?
Tried to close down bolshevik newspapers, restrict MRC power
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What was the MRC?
Military Revolutionary Committee formed by soviet, role was to organise retrogrades defences against Germans or opposition. was under B control and allowed them to have access to military info.
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24 October in Petrograd
B's took control of railways, offices bridges etc. Guards moved off without conflict and most of P was under B control.
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25 October in Petrograd
Kerensky left P to get army support, PG winter palace was now guarded by pro bolshevik soldiers, Trotsky announced overthrow of PG (announced this too early), second congress of soviets and there was 300 out of 670 who were B's
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26 October in Petrograd
Mensheviks and Sr's walked out of congress of soviets, winter palace surrendered, B's announced a soviet based government, decree on peace and land announced
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what was the decree on peace after bolsheviks got power?
demanded immediate ceasefire and called on peace negotiations immediately
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what was the decree on land after bolsheviks got power?
land confiscated without compensation, land passed to those who cultivated on it
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What were the events in October called as a whole?
the October revolution
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what did Lenin do once in power?
formed s new government, allowed elections to go ahead, ruled alone, hold out for a peace deal with Germany so not much territory was taken, give land to peasants immediately to get their support.
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October 1917 - the decree
stated 8 hour days, opposition press band, decree on land and peace
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November 1917 decree
abolition of titles and class distinctions, workers to control factories, abolition of justice system, equal pay
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December 1917 decree
Cheka set up, banks nationalised, army changed so officers were elected
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January 1918 decree
workers controlled railways, created red army, church and state became separated
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February 1918 decree
nationalisation of the industry, socialisation of land
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The elections
they were to elect the constituent assembly, B got 23% of votes, SR's got majority. Lenin thought this didn't reflect what the voters wanted though soviet was better.
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what was the SR's reaction to the elections?
5 January - 50,000 anti B's went to Petrograd, B's opened fire, CA disbanded by Lenin. Opposition formed an alternative government; committee of members of the constituent assembly
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why was Treaty of Brest - Litovsk agreed quickly?
due to Russia being under threat of invasion, Lenin need to fulfil his promises of peace and needed to focus his attention elsewhere
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why did the germans want to agree to the Brest - Litovsk treaty?
As USA were going to join the war and they didn't want to be fighting 3 major powers
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what did Germany asked for in the treaty?
Finland, estonia, Latvia, Lituania, Poland, ukariane
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signing of the treaty
Lenin reluctantly signed it - march 1918
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Impact of the treaty
Sr's unhappy as they lost land, army and m/c saw bolsheviks as being weak, now wanted to overthrow bolsheviks and declare war on Germany
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What was the Cheka?
secret police, by 1921 nearly 150,000 members, worked outside ordinary law, only accountable to the bolshevik government
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What were the bolshevik attacks like on opposition?
very aggressive, shut down hostile newspapers, 1918 onwards Russia was a one party state
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Red terror
done by opposition to get control over bolshevik areas. brutality such as scalping. at least 200,000 killed
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State capitalism (1917-18)
when private companies were directed and monitored by the state. Was introduced because eeocmomy was awful eg unemployment and inflation
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when was the supreme council of national economy set up?
december 1917, created to supervise industry and manage the economy
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November 1917
Decree on land, decree on workers control - made industry workers happy
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Banking taken over by the state
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What were the reasons for war communism?
Poor industrial output, food and fuel shortages, inflation, peasants unwilling to sell food, people leaving Petrograd due to lack of food.
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Features of war communism
grain requisitioning, banning of private trade, nationalisation of the industry, labour discipline and rationing
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Why did the Tambov rising occur?
Due to grain requisitioning causing resentment
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What happened in the Tambov rising?
40,000 peasants in Tambov against the red army. red army responded brutally; poison gas and women and children taken hostage.
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Why did the Kronstadt mutiny happen?
10,000 sailors, they thought bolsheviks were abusing their power. wanted new legislation, soviet elections and rights for trade unions
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What happened during the Kronstadt mutiny?
lasted 2 weeks as was suppressed by 50,000 red army troops. 10,000 were killed int he frontal assault across the gulf of Finland. was a wake up call for Bolsheviks as sailors used to support them
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Reasons for the NEP
end of the civil war, peasant unrest, Kronstadt mutiny, problems in the cities eg strikes and lack of food
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Features of the NEP
Grain requistioning replaced with 'tax in hand', private ownership legalised, industries could trade at a profit
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Economic results of the NEP
was too late to prevent major feminine,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Zinoviev and Kamenev


Members of the committee who thought it would be too risky to seize power. they feared a civil war, wrote their views in a newspaper.

Card 3


What mistakes did Kerensky make?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was the MRC?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


24 October in Petrograd


Preview of the front of card 5
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