Basque Nationalism and ETA

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  • Created by: lizy
  • Created on: 25-05-15 13:13
Why did Sabino de Arana set up the PNV?
Because he was worried about the Basque purity and superiority being threatened by the number of immigrants coming to the Basque Country because of the successful industry prospects
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How many Basques were exiled during the Civil War?
100,000 to 150,000. 30,000 of these were children
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How many Priests were killed in the Basque Country in the early years of the Franco regime?
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All school masters were fired immediatley in the Basque Country unless...
They could prove their political neutrality
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The PNV created what to coordinate any anti-Franco activity on Basque Soil?
The Resistance Committee
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The PNV and other Basque organisations joined the ..... in the year .... to pledge their unified support for the struggle of Basque autonomy against the Franco regime.
Basque Consultative Council in 1945
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The BCC's main work consisted in ...
Painting the Euzkadi flag in inaccesible but visible places, painting revolutionary slogans on walls, and setting up Rado Euzkadi, which ran for 13 years. It was broadcast initially from France and then from Venezuela.
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Every time the BCC did anything, how many people were arrested?
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The first major BCC activity was ....
A General Strike in May 1947.
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The BCC's main ideology was ....
To work for a democratic solution to Spain's problems, not a revolutionary one.
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Where was EKIN created, when and how?
University of Duesto in 1952. A group of students began meeting to discuss the political problems of Spain. They grew more and more popular and soon and soon had thier own newsletter, entitled EKIN (to do).
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What happened next for EKIN?
The PNV approached the party to ask them to join thier older and more established political party. Negotiations lasted 2 years, 1955-57, and they finally agreed to join.
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Why did EKIN not last very long with PNV?
EKIN lasted a year with the PNV. The PNV increasingly saw EKIN as lacking in patience and discipline, whereas EKIN saw the PNV as immoblized and cowardly in their attitude to getting rid of Franco.
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What did Jose Luis Alvarez say about EKIN's frustration with the PNV?
"We had the impression that they were waiting for Franco to die, or for the Americans to invade. Charecteristic of youth, we did not take kindly to the idea of waiting"
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When did EKIN split from the PNV, and what did it become?
EKIN split in 1959 to form Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, ETA.
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What does ETA mean, what was it originally called, and why was the name cunning?
Euskadi Ta Askatasuna = Basque Homeland and Freedom. It was originally called ATA but this means duck in some Basque dialects. It was cunning because ETA means conjuncture in Basque, so it was already including unwillingly in many Basque texts.
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How many members did ETA have by the end of 1959?
200-250 members
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How did ETA define themselves at this stage?
"Patriotic, democratic non-confessional movement"
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What did ETA's initial work consist of?
Distribution of pamphlets, occasionally showing the prohibited Basque flag.
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What happened in 1970, and how did it effect ETA's work?
In 1970 raids on the PNV (twice) gave information on the existence of ETA to the government. Violence and suppression ensued, pushing the movement further underground and hardening their points of view.
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What was charecteristic of the increased Basque repression in 1960?
An open letter by 300 Basque Priests voicing their disagreement with the regime.
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What happened in 1961?
ETA's first attack. ETA derails a train of Civil War Veterans. They do not aim to harm anyone. The attack in unsuccessful
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How many people are arrested as a consequence, and what happens?
100 people are arrested, with roughly 30 being sent to the Carabanchel Prison in Madrid. Most of the people get 15-20 years in Prison or are exiled.
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What happens in 1962?
The First General Meeting, Primera Assemblea. The organization takes the oppertunity to define itself as a 'Basque revolutionary movement for national liberation'. Members are now referred to as comrades or militants.
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What was ETA's change in ideology in 1964, and how did they change their official policy accordingly?
ETA declared itself Marxist in 1964, and the party adopted a pamphlet written by the codename 'Goitziri' as thier official ideology and policy. It argued the case for revolutionary war.
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In 1965, how did ETA's ideology further change?
ETA began to advocate the use of violence to overthrow Franco, and also against the police and security forces.
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What happened at the Sixth Assembly in 1966?
ETA split into ETA-V and ETA-VI. ETA-V adhered to the traditional goal of Basque autonomy, whereas ETA-VI favoured a Marxist-Leninist approach which advocated sabotage and assasination.
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What topics were the several splits in ETA based on?
Representation of the working class, political stance, violence.
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What did ETA start to do in 1967?
It realised it needed more money to fund its campagin. It began to rob banks, kidnap wealthy people and collect a 'revolutionary tax' from well-to-do industrialists and bankers.
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When was ETA's first bank robbery and how much did they make?
1st April 1967, 1 million pesetas.
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How many pesetas is it said ETA gained from bank robberies alone up until 1977?
More than 60 million pesetas
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How many Basqus were in prison during the 1960s-70s?
It constantly varied between 100-200.
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How many deaths were there from 1968-73 and then 1974-5 that were associated with ETA
19 from 1968-73. 55 from 1974-5.
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Who was the first mortality associated with ETA?
In 1967, there were two shootouts with police a few days apart. In these two shootouts, a police man and an ETA member, Xavi Exteraberrieta, were killed. Xavi was seen as a matyr and given a huge funeral.
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What happened in 1968?
Melitøn Manzanas was murdered by a single assilant outside his front door, who shot him 7 times.
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Why did they target Melitøn?
Melitøn was known as the police torturer, famed for his torture as part of interrogation. He collaborated with the Gestapo in Germany and most importantly he was Basque, but vehemently against Basque Nationalism.
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How many people were arrested as a result of the Melitøn assasination?
No surprise here, 100 people.
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Why did the Burgos Trial of 1970 cause international outcry?I
It was carried out under military law with no guarentees of correct procedures. The accuseds rights to have an attorney were restricted, the cross examintion of adverse witnesses was not permitted and most importantly of alll ...
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And most importantly of all ...
The defendants were not allowed to testify against the brutal methods which had been used to extract their confessions.
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How many men were in the Burgos Trial and what were their sentances?
14 men, including two priests. 4 were to be executed.
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What changed this ruling?
ETA kidnapped the German consul in San Sebastian, Eugen Beilh, in 1970. He was released in exchange for more lenient treatment of the Burgos defendants, 24 hours later, unharmed.
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What impact did the Burgos trial have?
Internatinal Outcry on Spain. Several European governments removed their ambassadors for consultations. ETA had new image of freedom fighters.
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What was ETA's greatest feat in 1973?
Operacion Orgo, the assasination of Carrero Blanco (Franco's successor). They did explosives under the street that he went down every morning after visiting the Jesuit Church
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How far was the car blown?
Over a 5 storey building and into a courtyard behind.
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Why did ETA carry out this assasination, supposedley?
In response to the execution of 5 of Franco's political opponenets, including some ETA members.
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What percentage of prisoners in the whole of Spain were Basque at the time of Franco's death?
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In the 20 months following Carrero's death, how many terrorist operations and deaths were carried out by ETA?
85 terrorist operations and 40 deaths
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ETA cost the Spanish government how much between 1994-2003?
$11 billion
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What percentage of ETA targets were government agencies?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How many Basques were exiled during the Civil War?


100,000 to 150,000. 30,000 of these were children

Card 3


How many Priests were killed in the Basque Country in the early years of the Franco regime?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


All school masters were fired immediatley in the Basque Country unless...


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


The PNV created what to coordinate any anti-Franco activity on Basque Soil?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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