Basic immunology

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  • Created by: Chrisw0
  • Created on: 21-12-14 14:03
Describe the 4 main differences between the innate and adaptive system
Resistance, specificity, effector cells and effector molecule
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state 3 mechanical ways that the surface epithelial helps prevent infection
1 tight junctions 2) change in air/ fluid limit bacterial growth 3) mucus production
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state 5 chemical ways that the surface epithelial helps prevent infection
lysosomes in saliva sweat and tears, fatty acids and salty sweat, low pH and pepsin in stomach, defensins in GIT and airways, acidity of urine +vaginal lactic acid
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what is a macrophage?
large mononuclear cells found in tissue [monocytes mature into macrophage]. They circulate in the blood as monocytes. And their number increases when there is an infection. Stimulates adaptive response.
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what is a neutrophil?
multi-lobed nucleus. Contains a lot of different granules in the cytoplasm[lysosome, myeloperoxidase, Lactoferrin] circulate the blood. Most abundant in white blood cells. Neutrophils are made in the bone marrow. Short lived and removed by the spleen
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what is a eosinophils?
bi-lobed nucleus that contains granules. Small amounts in blood unless there is an infection. They kill infectious organisms by releasing toxic proteins
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what is a mast cell?
mast cells release mediators stored in granules, such as histamine [dilate and increase permeability of blood vessels] as well as cytokines [stimulates an inflammatory response and recruits eosinophils to tissue- results in tissue damage.
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what is a NK cell?
specialised lymphocytes that can kill virus infected cells. They contain proteases that can induce the death of the target cells. Their numbers increase rapidly within 2 days of a viral infection. They are activated by type 1 interferons produced by
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describe the 4 stages of innate immunity
1. Adherence of bacteria to epithelium 2. Penetration of epithelium e.g. a cut 3. Local infection of tissues-activation of macrophages 4. Macrophages overwhelmed- recruitment of neutrophils
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describe the process of phagocytosis
look at notes
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How does opsonisation aid phagocytosis?
Opsonisation facilitates the uptake and destruction of pathogen by phagocytic cells. v This occurs by the recognition of compliments by complement receptors on the phagocytic cell [both macrophages and neutrophil]
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Describe the indirect killing of bacteria via the alternate pathway.
see notes
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name the compliment regulatory proteins which inactivate C3 convertase
CR1, DAF, FACTOR H and MCP bind to C3bBb complexes and displace Bb from the complex
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describe the direct killing of pathogen via compliment cascade
see notes
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state 3 mechanical ways that the surface epithelial helps prevent infection

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1 tight junctions 2) change in air/ fluid limit bacterial growth 3) mucus production

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state 5 chemical ways that the surface epithelial helps prevent infection

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Card 4

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what is a macrophage?

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Card 5

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what is a neutrophil?

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