Basic concepts and hydrocarbons


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Hydrocarbons
Organic compunds containing only hydrogen and carbon
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Saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with single bonds only
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Unsaturated hydrocarbon
A hyrdocarbon with carbon-carbon double bonds
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Aliphatic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
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Alicyclic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
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Functional group
The part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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Homologous series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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A general formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Alkanes
The homologous series with the general formula CnH2n+2
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Nomenclature
The system of naming compounds
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An alkyl group
An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed
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Displayed formula
The relative positioning of atoms within a molecule and the bonds between them
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Structural formula
The minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal formula
A simplified organic formula, showing just the carbon skeleton and related functional groups
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Structural isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formulas, but with a different arrangement of atoms in space
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E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each each carbon of a C=C may be arranged differently in space because of the C=C's restriction of movement
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cis/trans isomerism
A type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a hyrogen and a non-hydrogen group on each carbon of the C=C.
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cis/Z isomer
The group that is the same on each carbon (eg. hydrogen) of the C=C are on the same side
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trans/E isomer
The group that is the same on each carbon (eg.hydrogen) of the C=C are on different sides
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Homolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom to form two radicals
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Heterolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming an anion (-ve) and a cation (+ve)
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Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atoms where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Electrophile
An atom (or a group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Addition reaction
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
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Substitution reaction
A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms
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Elimination reaction
The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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Fractional distillation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling pointby means of distillation
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Cracking
The breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter chained alkanes and alkenes
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process
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Radical substitution
A type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms
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Mechanism
A sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
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Initiation
The first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation
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Propagation
The two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction
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Termination
The step at the end of a radical substitution when two free radicals combine to form a molecule
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A pi bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of the p orbitals
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Electrophilic addition
A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Carbocation
An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge
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Curly arrow
A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond
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Polymer
A long molecular chain built up from monomer units
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Monomer
A small molecule that combines with other monomers to form a polymer
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Addition polymerisation
The procees in which unsaturated alkane molecules add to a growing polymer chain one at a tim, to form a very long saturated molecular chain
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An addition polymer
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hydrocarbon with single bonds only

Back

Saturated hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

A hyrdocarbon with carbon-carbon double bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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