Basic concepts and hydrocarbons

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  • Created by: Kat098
  • Created on: 05-04-18 15:20
Homologous series
A series of organic compunds that have the same functional group with successive memebers differeing by CH3
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Aliphatic hydrocarbons
Carbon atoms joined together in either straight or branched chains
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Alicyclic hydrocarbons
Carbon atoms are joined in a ring structure but are not aromatic
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Aromatic hydrocarbons
At least one benzene ring in the structure
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Stem
Main part of name. the longest carbon chain or parent chain
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Suffix
Eend of name. Most important functional group
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Prefix
Front of name. Identifies other functional groups and carbon atoms they are attached to
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Saturatd compound
Have only single bonds
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A functional group
A group of atoms that is responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of a compound
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General formula
Simplest algebraic formula (C4H10)
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Display formula
Shows relative position of all the atoms in a moleucle and the bonds between them
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Structural formula
Gives minimal detail for the arragment of the atoms in a molecule (CH3(CH2)CH3)
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Skeletal formula
Lines are used to indicate alkyl chains
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Unsaturated
Contains at least one carbon-carbon double covalent bond
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Structual isomers
Compounds with same molecular formula but differnt arrangement of their atoms/ different structual formula
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Sterioisomerism
Compund with same moleuclar formula and structural formula, but different arragement of atoms in space
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Cis-trans isomerism
Tyope of E/Z bond, but the two substituent groups attached to both carbon atoms are the same
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E/Z isomerism
a type of steriosomerism caused by the restricted rotation around a carbon-carbon double bond
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Covalent bond fission
A strong electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the nucleus being broken
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Homolytic fission
Covalent bond breaks and each electron goes to a different bonded atom
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Heterolyic fission
Covalent bond breaks and both electrons go to one of the bonded atoms, forming two ions
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Covalent bond formation
When two radicals or two oppositely charged ions collide
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Carbocation
Very reactive intermediates
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Radicals
Highly reactive species with one or more unpaired electrons
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Radical substitution
An organic mechanism involving radicals where one or more atoms get exchanged
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Electrophilic addition reactions
Two or more molecules are bonded to make one product
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Electrophiles
an electron-pair acceptor (+)
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Hydrogenation
An addition reaction where hydrogen is added across a C=C bond
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Halogenation
An addition reaction where a halogen is added across a C=C bond
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Hydration
An addition reaction between a gaseous alkene and steam, used to make alcohols
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Addition of hydrogen halides
An addition reaction where a hydrogen halide is added across a C=C bond
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Markownikoff's rule
When H-X moleucle is added to an unsymmetrical alkene, the hydrogen attaches to the carbon with most hydrogens already attached
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Monomers
Small moleucle used to make polymers
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Polymers
A macromolecule made from small repeating units
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Biodegradable
Materials that are affected by microorganisms and environmental conditions, leading to decompositon
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Bioplastic
Material made from renewable source that is biodegradable
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Dehydration
a chemical reaction where a water molecule is eliminated from an organic compund
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Elimination
An organic chemical reaction where one reactant forms two products, with usually a small moelucle like water being released3
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Photodegradable
capable of being decomposed by the action of light, especially sunlight
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Pie bonds
Sideways overlap of adjacent p-orbitals above and below the bonding C atoms
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Sigma bonds
Made by direct overlap between orbitals on the bonding atoms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Carbon atoms joined together in either straight or branched chains

Back

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Card 3

Front

Carbon atoms are joined in a ring structure but are not aromatic

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

At least one benzene ring in the structure

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Main part of name. the longest carbon chain or parent chain

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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