Bacterial Genetics

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 14-04-17 13:49
what do bacteria not have?
no gamete forming process and no diploid phase
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what do bacteria need to be maintained in?
solid or liquid nutrient media
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how is genetics still possible?
genes can be transferred between bacteria
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what bacteria has been at the forefront of bac genetics?
Escherichia coli (E.coli)
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what media do wild type bac grow in?
minimal medium
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what does minimal medium contain?
simple carbon source (sugar), various salts and water
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what are auxotrophs?
mutant bacteria that cannot synthesize essential nutrients
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if a bacteria cant produce tryptophan and is Tr- what is it?
auxotrophic for tryptophan
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what are wild type for specific biosynthetic pathways called?
prototrophs
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what does bacteria genetic transfer require?
cell-cell contact
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what direction is genetic exchange between bacteria?
from donor to recipient, unidirectional
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what is the symbol for the donor strain of fertility factor?
F+
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what is the fertility factor? how many kbs?
circular DNA plasmid, 100kb so can conjugate
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what is the oriT?
where transfer of fertility factor begins
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what genes encode components of transfer machinery like f pilus proteins?
tra genes
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what is the bridge that connects F+ donor to F- rrecipient during conjugation?
F pilus
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what did auxotrophic mutants reveal?
the existence of gene transfer processes in bacteria
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what does the F plasmid integrate into?
host chromosome
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what induces lac operon transcription?
lactose
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what represses lac operon transcription?
glucose
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what is the transcription of the trp operon repressed by?
tryptophan
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what was the name of the tube used to show bacteria requires cell-cell contact?
David U-tube
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what is the F facotr?
fertility factor a plasmid hat enables to conjugate
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how does conjugation work?
F plasmid is transferred to F- through the F-pilus bridge which connects them, both have has plasmid
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why do organisms adapt beneficially to changing environment?
to maintain constant physiological state to protect against stress+ take advantage of improved circumstances
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whats examples of changing conditions for bac?
changes in nutrient availability, changing biosynthetic activities
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why is regulating gene expression according to the environmen advantegeous?
allows efficient use of resources
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what is the substrate for the trp operon?
indole-3-glyoerol phosphate
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what can transcription be controlled by?
a repressor blocking RNA polymerase, for transcription is is made to dissociate
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where does the repressor dissociate from?
the operator
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what is lactose broken down to?
glucose and galactose
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what enzyme breaks down lactose?
beta-galactosidase
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what is an operon?
a cluster of adjacent genes with closely related biochemical functions:multiple proeins from 1 mRNA
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what happens when lactose is present?
lac operon is induced, b galacotosidase gene is made
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which co factor assists lactose transcription?
CAP
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what do bacteria need to be maintained in?

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solid or liquid nutrient media

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how is genetics still possible?

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Card 4

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what bacteria has been at the forefront of bac genetics?

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what media do wild type bac grow in?

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