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Upbringing/ Juby and Farrington
many people suggest that upbringing is the biggest influence on criminality. if a persons family are criminals the person is more likely to be criminal. V deterministic and ignores individ. differences as some people turn their lives around
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Peers/ Sutherland
Family not the only influence. influence of peers also is a big factor. people can get in with the wrong crowd, which causes them to become criminals especially during adolescence
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Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods/ Wikstrom & Tafel
socioeconomic deprivation can be a plausible explanation for criminality, especially theft. however still need to consider individual differences- most poor choose not to steal. disadvantaged neighbourhoods linked to crime- related to peers closer.
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Cognition/ Yochelson and Samenow
do criminals think differently to non criminals? must be able to rationalise their own behaviour and decide the risks involved are worth the possible gains. basic assumption is that criminals must think differently to law abiding citizens.
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Moral Development / Kohlberg
morals are norms and values, usually learnt from parents different countries have different ages of criminal responsibility (UK 10 German 18 Scotland 8). Kohlberg influenced by Piaget and thought children's cognition developed through stages.
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Social Cognition/ Gudjohnsson and Bownes
attribution is all about blame. if we realise we are to blame it is internal attribution. if we blame others or outside factors it is external attribution. offender is considered rehabilitated when accepts responsibility and reaches internal attribut
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Brain Abnormality/ Raine
previous research indicates in both humans and animals that dysfunction in certain localised areas of the brain can predispose individuals to more violent behaviour.
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Genetic causes / Brunner
people could be predisposed to violent, aggressive or criminogenic behaviour due to their genes. twin study found that there was a 52% concordance rate for criminality in MZ twins compared to 22% in DZ twins
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Gender causes / Daly and Wilson
in all cultures young males appear more often in crime statistics than any other groups. testosterone has been cited as a cause for male violence as it influences aggression. young male offenders- short term horizon- want instant gratification.
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Recognising Faces/ Bruce
being able to recognise the offenders face is key to many convictions. easy to recognise familiar face but much harder to remember a strangers face. facial recognition has same probs as memory recall- delay between event and recall. cue dependent
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Weapon focus/ Loftus
victim more likely to focus on the weapon during a crime so means they have difficulty recalling other details of the scene and identifying the perpetrator of the crime.
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Cognitive Interview/ Giselman and Fisher
1. report everything 2. recreate the scene of crime 3. recall events in reverse order 4. recall from different perspective these stages help witness remember as many details as possible to get best evidence
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Detecting Lies/ Vrij and Mann
purpose of interviewing suspect is to gather further evidence to establish guilt/innocence. police think they are good at detecting lies- look for body lang such as looking down, inconsistent responses and putting hands over mouth
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Interrogation Techniques / Granhag and Stromwell
interrogation different to interview as is accusatory. designed to increase arousal and anxiety. interrogations often used to be used to gain confessions.PACE changes this as D's innocent until proven guilty.
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False Confessions/ Gudjohnsson
3 types- voluntary- no external pressure -coerced compliant- forceful and persistent questioning they confess -coerced internalised - suspect becomes temporarily persuaded that they committed the offence
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Top Down Typology/ Canter
used in USA starts with a big picture and fills in the details. organised and disorganised murders- organised =control, planning, few clues left. disorganised= sudden, little control, evidence left, body not hidden
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Bottom Up Typology/ Canter and Bennell
bottom up approach looks for consistencies in offenders behaviour during the crime. no initial assumptions are made about the offender and approach relies on computer databases. can be little details that can be crucial
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Case Study Railway ******/ Canter
1975-1986 23 women were ***** at railway stations in and around London. Canter place all the cases on a map allowing him to speculate where the ****** might live
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Planned behaviour once freed from jail/ Farrington and Jolife
Prisons at all time high capacity. need to educate and prepare prisoners for life outside to prevent reoffending. parole important as means prisoners more likely to comply with rules- incentive. prisoners positive intent to stay out is crucial
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Prison Policy/ Zimardo
2 conflicting points of view: 1. prison should be deterrent 2. prisons should rehabilitate Zimbardo hoped his stanford prison study would lead to improvement in US penal system and US prisons
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Probation/ Mair and May
probation service supports 200,000 offenders on 4 types of sentence: rehabilitation punishment combination and drug orders. 70% on community sentence 30% released early from prison on licence. on probation if you break conditions you go back to jail.
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Restorative Justice/ Sherman and Strang
allows victims to meet perpetrator and seeks positive outcomes for both parties. must be voluntuary for both. allows victims to explain impact of crime, and perpetrators to acknowledge harm caused. can deter people from reoffending.
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Looking death worthy/ Eberhardt
many places in america still have the death penalty. many people argue that certain qualities make people more likely to recieve the death sentence. this is often black people as the historical prejuduice is worse.
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Cognitive Skills Treatments/ Freindship
recidivism in UK is 64%. to stop repeat offending effective treatment and rehabillitation programmes are needed. before a criminal act can occur there must be a criminal
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Anger management/ Ireland
many prisoners have problems controlling their anger which leads to violent behaviour. anger needs to be controlled for safety of staff and prisoners. we can do this through programmes such as CALM.
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Ear Acupuncture/ Wheatley
alternative treatment for drug rehabilitation. been used in prisons for 5 years, popular as cheap, easily taught and prisoner does not have to be motivated to work. drugs are big problem in prisons and society so has great potential. but does it work
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Peers/ Sutherland


Family not the only influence. influence of peers also is a big factor. people can get in with the wrong crowd, which causes them to become criminals especially during adolescence

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Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods/ Wikstrom & Tafel


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Cognition/ Yochelson and Samenow


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Moral Development / Kohlberg


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