Background of studies

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HBM/Abrahams
1. a) perception of threat b) perceived vulnerability to threat 2. cost-benefit analysis 3. cue for action (physical symptom, media campaign etc.) 4. demographic variables (social factors: age gender etc)
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Locus of Control/ Rotter
where people think the factors that influence behaviour come from. Internal = events and patterns in life are due to own behaviour and personality. External= consequences of behaviour interpreted as controlled by luck, fate or powerful others.
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Self Efficacy/ Bandura
developed from concept of internal LoC. Self efficacy- belief that we can perform adequately in a situation. 4 influences: 1. inactive (past success) vicarious (compare with others) persuasory (support form others) 4. arousal (motivation)
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Media Campaigns/ Cowpe
media campaigns used to change health attitudes and behaviour. recent years campaigns against binge drinking, smoking and to support sensible eating etc. BUT effectiveness limited.
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Legislation/ Dannenberg
legislation used to improve health attitudes and behaviour. 2007 smoking banned in all enclosed public places and legal age to buy cigarettes increased to 18. we need to ask how effective laws are in changing behaviour.
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Fear arousal/ Janis and Feshbach
fear arousal= scaring people into changing behaviour. Lashley and Watson- used shocking images and a story- people do not respond to the images and using story is risky as people pay more attention to action rather than info.
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Reasons for Non-Adherence/ Bulpit
non adherence= people who don't take prescribed medicine or follow medical advice. cognitive explanation is HBM- if medicine has side effects then people will not take it.
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Measuring non-adherence/ Lustman
hard to find out if people actually adhere. most common method is self-report where demand characteristics cause problems as patients exaggerate compliance. Lustman- physiological methods of measuring adherence.
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Improving adherence/ Watt et. al
many ways to improve adherence to medical regime. behaviourist approach using positive reinforcement (operant conditioning)- reward people when they take medication.
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Categorising/ DSM & ICD
for mental disorder to be recognised has to be listed in an internationally accredited health manual. DSM- USA & much of world ICD- Britain and much of world. once disorder is categorised patients can get recognition and resources to help
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Definitions/ Rosenhan and Seligman
Hard to define dysfunctional behaviour- first mental illness, then abnormality, and individual differences. Rosenhan- labels area sticky and affect peoples lives. also v hard to distinguish between 'sane' and 'insane' people.
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Bias/ Ford & Widiger
some groups more likely to be diagnosed with mental illnesses than others. raised questions of whether the differences are real or just as a result of bias. ethnicity- afro-carribbeans 3x more likely than white/asian gender-women more likely than men
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Behavioural Explanations/ Watson and Raynor
behavioural approach- human born as blank slate and all behaviour learned. classical conditioning assumes behaviour learned through association operant- through reinforcement and imitation. D.B not result of genes/ faulty thinking but is learned
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Biological Explanations/ Gottesman and Shields
biological approach assumes disorders due to physiological factors such as genes hormones and neurotransmitters. Twin studies- show how genes affect people when twins separated at birth and behave similarly. MZ = same egg DZ= 2 eggs
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Cognitive Explanations/ Beck
cognition challenged behavioural approach. cognitive exp- based on how people think. D.B results from dysfunctional ways of thinking e.g faulty or irrational thinking. led to CBT changing how people think to treat D.B
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Behavioural treatments/ McGrath
dysfunctional behaviour learned so can be unlearned. classical and operant conditioning can be used to unlearn D.B. if D.B can be learned (little albert) it can be unlearned known as systematic desensitisation- associating phobia with something nice,
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Biological Treatments of Depression/ Karp and Frank
most common is drug therapy- attempts to balance the hormonal or chemical imbalances e.g. schizophrenia - too much dopamine so drug which reduces dopamine would be a treatment.
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Cognitive Treatments/ Beck
CBT attempts to change faulty/irrational thinking. patients encouraged to keep a diary to show evidence of being of worth and respected by others. CBT also challenges patients to see that people they admire make mistakes and aren't loved by everyone.
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Disorders/ Anxiety- phobias
continuous feeling of fear or anxiety which is disabling and affects daily functioning. anxiety disorders encompass many different disorders including panic disorders, OCD, phobias, PTSD
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Disorders/ Affective- depression
mood/ affective disorders are disabling moods. this means they prevent the patient from leading a normal life, at work, socially or within their family. affective disorders are depression and bipolar depression
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Disorders/ Psychotic- schizophrenia
psychosis is general term for disorders involving a loss of contact with reality. covers disorder which may involve delusions causing the patient to lose sense of reality and therefore withdraw from the outside world. include schizophrenia
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Behavioural Explanations for Depression/ Seligman
behaviourism would suggest affective disorders learned through classic/operant conditioning. classic- make associations between events or circumstances and mood change operant- lack of pos. reinforcement link to depression
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Biological Explanations for Depression/ Wender
genetic disposition towards depress explains why more than one family member is depressed. may be that certain genes means a person is more likely to be depressed.
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Cognitive Explanations for Depression/ Alloy
uses Becks approach- depression a result of faulty or irrational thinking. however hard to infer cause and effect- does negative thinking cause depression or is it a consequence of it?
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Behavioural Treatments of Depression/ Lewinsohn
behaviourism argues the best treatment for depression would be the one that teaches patients they will be positively reinforced for non depressive behaviours.
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Biological Treatments of Depression/ Karp and Frank
most common is drug therapy- attempts to balance the hormonal or chemical imbalances e.g. schizophrenia - too much dopamine so drug which reduces dopamine would be a treatment.
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Cognitive Treatments of Depression/ Elkin
key questions is effectiveness of treatments for depression- is CBT and IPT better than drug therapy ?
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Locus of Control/ Rotter

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where people think the factors that influence behaviour come from. Internal = events and patterns in life are due to own behaviour and personality. External= consequences of behaviour interpreted as controlled by luck, fate or powerful others.

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Self Efficacy/ Bandura

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Card 4

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Media Campaigns/ Cowpe

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Card 5

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Legislation/ Dannenberg

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