B7 New technologies

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What is a fermenter?
A fermenter is a controlled environment that has ideal conditions for microorganisms to live, feed and produce proteins needed in
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What are fermenters used to grow?
Fermenters are used to grow microorganisms/their products e.g. antibiotics; single-cell proteins e.g Quorn; enzymes used in food; enzymes used in washing powder; enzymes used to make biofuel e.g. ethanol and methane gas
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Why is using bacteria for genetic and industrial purposes ideal?
bacteria have very simple biochemistry; reproduce very rapidly so produce large amounts quickly; they can make complex molecules from simple molecules; they have DNA plasmids for ease of modification; no ethical opposition
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How is genetic modification carried out?
1) the desired gene is isolated 2) desired gene is inserted into bacteria using a vector (virus/plasmid) 3) the gene is replicated 4) the gene is transferred into the target bacterium
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What are uses of genetic modification in crop farming?
produce healthier crops with higher yield; produce disease resistant crops that reduce the need for (pollution) pesticides; make some crops resistant to herbicide; produce some crops to naturally carry vaccines so they don't need to be refrigeration
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What are some uses of genetic modification for humans?
It enables some drugs (e.g. insulin) to be made from human, rather than animal DNA
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How do you test a gene?
1)DNA is isolated from nucleus of white blood cell 2)gene probe is created with DNA/RNA that pair up with complementary bases on target gene. Probe will only attach if desired gene is present in a sample so acts as a marker 3)UV light locates marker
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What are some applications of nanotechnology?
1) Building biosensors into packaging to monitor food quality by detecting harmful MOs and changing colour has a warning. 2) Using them as antimicrobials
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What are 3 applications of stem cell technology?
Bone marrow transplants: stem cells used to stimulate regeneration of white blood cells to treat leukaemia; treating spinal cord injuries: stem cells can heal damage by helping regenerate neurons; cell culture: stem cells can be grown into new tissue
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What can biomedical engineering make?
Pace makers: devices implanted under the skin to replace the heart's sinoatrial node to maintain adequate regular heartbeat; replacement heart valves that keep the blood flow in the heart efficient
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Card 2

Front

What are fermenters used to grow?

Back

Fermenters are used to grow microorganisms/their products e.g. antibiotics; single-cell proteins e.g Quorn; enzymes used in food; enzymes used in washing powder; enzymes used to make biofuel e.g. ethanol and methane gas

Card 3

Front

Why is using bacteria for genetic and industrial purposes ideal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is genetic modification carried out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are uses of genetic modification in crop farming?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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