B7.5: New Technologies

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What are Micro-Organisms?
Microscopic living things, including bacteria and fungi.
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How are Bacteria Different from Human Cells?
They have no true nucleus and are a lot smaller.
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Why Might Bacteria be Described as Living Factories?
They can be used to manufacture biological molecules such as enzymes.
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List 5 Features of Bacteria that Mean they are Ideal for Industrial Manufacturing.
They grow and reproduce quickly; they possess plasmids; they have simple biochemistry; they can make complex molecules; there are no ethical concerns over their use.
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How are Fungi Different from Bacteria?
Fungi have no proper nuclei and are more complex.
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What is Mean by Fermentation?
This is growing micro-organisms in fermenters under ideal conditions.
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List 2 Products Made by Fermentation.
Antibiotics, Insulin, Cell Protein, Chymosin
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What Conditions Need to be Controlled in a Fermenter?
Temperature, Nutrient Levels, Waste Levels
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What is a Single Cell Protein?
A protein made by fungi.
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How Can a Single Cell Protein be Used?
It can be processed for human food e.g. for vegetarians or for animal feed.
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What is the Source of Rennet?
Calf Stomachs
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How is Rennet Used in the Food Industry?
To make milk proteins coagulate for making cheese.
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Name a Source of Chymosin Other Than Rennet.
Genetically Engineered Bacteria
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What are Biofuels?
Fuels made from plants that have been grown recently.
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How is Ethanol Made from Sugar?
Yeast is used to ferment the sugar anaerobically.
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What is a Biological Washing Powder?
A washing powder that contains enzymes.
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What Types of Stains Can They Work Best On?
Food Stains- Grease (Fat), Carbs, Proteins
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What is Meant by Genetic Modification?
Altering the DNA of a micro-organism by adding genes from another species.
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Name the Rings of DNA Found in Bacteria.
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Why Does a Bacterium Need a Human Gene in Order to Make a Human Protein.
It needs the correct code in the sequence of DNA bases for the human protein.
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What is a Vector?
A method of transferring a gene into another organism.
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Why are Plasmids Good Vectors?
The occur in bacteria and a small enough for bacteria to absorb as they grow.
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Describe How the Human Insulin Gene Can be Inserted Into a Bacterium.
The gene is isolated an inserted into plasmids. The plasmids are then mixed with bacteria, which absorb the plasmids.
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Give an Example of Genetic Modification in Plants. What are the Advantages?
Herbicide Resistance. Farmers can spray their crops to kill weeds that compete with the crop without harming the crop itself.
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Give 3 Arguments Against Genetic Modification.
Some people think it is 'playing God'. There may be unexpected results in the recipient organism. There is the potential to upset the natural balance if modified organisms breed in the wild.
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Offer an Alternative Argument for Each Point.
Selective breeding is also interfering with nature and most people have no ethical issues with this. Research is very through and genetically modified organisms are carefully monitored and checked. GM plants = not allowed where they can interbreed.
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How Big are the Particles Used in Nanotechnology?
100nm or Smaller
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Describe 3 Examples of How Nano-particles Can be Used in Food Packaging.
To inhibit growth of bacteria; to indicate oxidisation when packages are leaking, to supply antibodies that react with bacteria.
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What is Meant by a Differentiated Cell?
A cell that has developed in a specialised way
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Why are Cells Differentiated?
To enable them to do a specific job well.
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What is a Stem Cell?
An unspecialised cell that is capable of dividing and differentiating into a range of cell types.
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Where in the Body Do Stem Cells Occur?
Bone Marrow, Umbilical Cord Blood
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What is Meant by Tissue Culture?
Growing tissue from cells in a laboratory.
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Describe How Stem Cells Can be Used to Treat Leukaemia.
Cells from the bone marrow of a healthy person are injected into the bone of a person with leukaemia.
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List 3 Possible Future Uses for Stem Cells in Medical Treatment.
To replace pancreas cells in people with diabetes; To repair nervous tissue in people with paralysis; Treating Alzheimer's diseases
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Explain Why a Donor is Needed When Using Stem Cell Technology & Why the Donor Must Match the Recipient.
The stem cells must be collected from a healthy person. The stem cells must be a similar type or they might be rejected by the immune system.
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What is Biomedical Engineering?
The use of human technology to replace body parts.
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Name 2 Parts of the Body That can be Repaired Using Biomedical Engineering.
Valves, Pacemaker
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What is the Role of the Pacemaker in the Heart? Why Might the Pacemaker Need to be Replaced?
To set the rhythm of the heartbeat. If the heart keeps going into an irregular rhythm.
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What is the Role of Valves in the Heart? & Why Might they Need to be Replaced.
To ensure blood flows the correct way. If they leak badly and allow blood to flow in the wrong direction.
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Briefly Describe the Structure of DNA.
Two chains of sub-units wound into a double helix; the chains are held together by pairs of the bases. (Adenine, A to Thymine, T, and Cytosine, C to Guanine, G
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Describe the 2 Features of DNA Structure That Allow Genetic Testing to Occur.
The sequence of bases provides a code for the characteristic; the bases pair in a specific way.
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What Tissue is Usually Sampled to Extract DNA for Genetic Tests?
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What is Gene Probe?
A length of single stranded DNA manufactured with a specific sequence complementary to the gene being looked for.
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Why Must DNA be Heated Before it is Mixed with a Gene Probe?
The heat separates the 2 chains of DNA, exposing the bases on each chain so the probe can bind.
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Why are Gene Probes Attached to Fluorescent Markers?
DNA is not visible - the marker fluorescences to make the probe visible.
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How are Fragments of DNA with Probes Attached Separated from Other Fragments of DNA?
Using Gel Electrophoresis
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Name 2 Genetic Disorders That Could be Tested for Using Genetic Testing.
Parkinson's Disease, Cystic Fibrosis
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How are Bacteria Different from Human Cells?


They have no true nucleus and are a lot smaller.

Card 3


Why Might Bacteria be Described as Living Factories?


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Card 4


List 5 Features of Bacteria that Mean they are Ideal for Industrial Manufacturing.


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Card 5


How are Fungi Different from Bacteria?


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