What is blood?
A fluid made up of cells,platelets and plasma.
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What does blood do?
Transports various substances around the body through the circulatory system.
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What are four things is blood made up of?
1)Red blood cells.2)Plasma.3)White blood cells.4)Platelets.
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Describe red blood cells.
1)Job is to transport oxygen from lungs to rest of body.2)Don't have a nucleus so they're packed with haemoglobin.3)Haemoglobin binds with oxygen.4)Red blood cells are biconcave in shape-gives large surface area for exchanging oxygen.
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1)Liquid that carries nutrients- e.g. glucose and amino acid-antibodies,hormones and waste(e.g. carbon dioxide and urea).
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Describe white blood cells.
Help to fight infection by protecting body against attack from microorganisms.
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Small fragments if cells that help blood to clot at site of wound.
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What kind of circulatory system do humans have?
Double circulatory system-two circuits joined together.
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Describe the double circulatory system.
1)First one pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs to take in oxygen.Blood returns to heart.2)Second one pumps oxygenated blood around body.Blood gives oxygen at body cells and deoxygenated blood returns to heart.
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What are 9 parts of the heart?
1)Left atrium.2)Aorta.3)Pulmonary veins.4)Valve.5)Left ventricle.6)Right atrium.7)Vena cava.8)Pulmonary artery.9)Right ventricle.
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Put the parts of the heart in the order that blood travels through them.
1)vena cava.2)Right atrium.3)Right ventricle.4)Pulmonary artery.5)Pulmonary vein.6)Left atrium.7)Left ventricle.8)Aorta
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What does the right atrium do?
Receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava.
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What does the right ventricle do?
Pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
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What does the left atrium do?
Receives oxygenated blood from lungs through pulmonary vein.
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What does the left ventricle do?
Pumps the oxygenated blood around the whole body via the aorta.
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What do the valves in the heart do?
Prevent back flow of blood-veins also have valves.
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How many coronary arteries are there?What do they do?
2 coronary arteries.They supply the heart muscle cells with blood.
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Why is the left ventricle wall thicker than the right ventricle?
It has to pump blood around the body but the right side only pumps to the lungs.
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Why do the atria have thinner walls?
As they only pump blood to the ventricles.
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How are chemicals exchanged?
Between cells and capillaries.
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Describe how chemicals are exchanged.
1)Capillaries have permeable walls-substances can diffuse in and out.2)Networks of capillaries in a tissues is called a capillary bed.3)As blood passes through beds, small molecules e.g. water,glucose and oxygen.. Continued...
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Chemical exchange continued.
...The small molecules forced out of capillaries,form tissue fluid-which surrounds cells.Substances can then diffuse of of tissue fluid into cells.4)Waste chemicals e.g. urea and carbon dioxide, diffuse from cells to tissue fluid then to capillaries.
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What does tissue fluid allow cells to do?
Get all substances that they need and get rid of waste without a capillary supplying energy cell.
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What is the job of a skeleton?
To support the body and allow it to move.To protect vital organs.
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What are vertebrates?Give examples.
Vertebrates all have a backbone and internal skeleton.E.g.Fish,amphibians,reptiles,birds and mammals.
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What are invertebrates?Give an example.
Have skeleton on the outside e.g. insects.
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What do joints allow bones to do?
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What are bones at a joint held by?
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1)Have high tensile strength.2)Slightly elastic-means they can stabilise joints by still allow movement.
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What are the ends of bones covered with?
Smooth layer of cartilage.
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1)Reduces friction between bones.2)Can be compressed slightly-acts as shock absorber.
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What do membranes do at some joints?
Release oily synovial fluid to lubricate joints-reduces friction.
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How do muscles move bones?
By pulling on them.
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How are bones attached to muscles?
By tendons (which also attach to other muscles).
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How do muscles move bones at a joint?
By contracting(becoming shorter).
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What happens to tendons when muscles contract?
Tendons can't stretch much,when muscle contracts,tendon pulls on the bone-transmitting force from muscle to bone.
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What are muscle pairs called?
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Why do muscles come in pairs?
Muscles can only pull on bones to move a joint-can't push.
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Explain what happens in antagonistic pairs.
1)When one muscle in the pair contracts,joint moves in one direction.2)When the other muscle contracts,it moves in the opposite direction.
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Give an example of antagonistic pair of muscles.
Biceps and triceps.
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What is being fit a measure of?
How well you do physical activities.
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What does exercise do?
Increases fitness, effective when done in a structured way by following regime.
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Give an example of people who can design fitness regimes.
Fitness practitioners e.g. personal trainers and gym instructors.
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What 6 things do fitness practitioners need when developing a regime?
1)Health problems.2)Current medication.3)Previous fitness treatments.4)Lifestyle.5)Family medical history.6)Physical activity.
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Explain health problems.
Practioner needs to know symptoms of medical problems as it could affect ability to exercise e.g. high blood pressure.
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Explain current medication.
Some medications can affect ability to exercise e.g. drowsiness or affecting co-ordination.
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Explain previous fitness treatment.
To know what has and hasn't worked before.
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E.g. smoking and drinking.Those who smoke and drink should cut down to make regime more effective.
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Explain family medical history.
Illnesses often run in families-could be important when designing regime.
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Explain physical activity.
So practitioner can plan a challenging programme that won't injure client.
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What increases during exercise?
Heart rate and blood pressure.
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When are blood pressure and heart rate at 'resting levels'?
When you aren't exercising.
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What is the recovery period?
The time it takes for the heart rate and blood pressure to return to resting levels after exercise.Fitter you are,shorter recovery period.
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What is BMI?
Stands for body mass index.Based on weight and height, can be used as indicator for fitness.
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Why isn't BMI the most accurate fitness indcator?
If someone is fit and muscular, BMI may be above normal range but muscle is more dense than fat.
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What is another way to indicate fitness?
Proportion of body fat-percentage of body mass thst's made up of fat.As fitness increases,percentage lowers.
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Why would you monitor your fitness during exercise?
To see if your'e improving.Any assessment always depends on accuracy and repeatability of monitoring procedures.
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What is accuracy?
The results should be as close to what's actually happening as possible.E.g. scales/
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What is repeatability?
The procedure should give reliable results.So, if procedure was repeated, you'd get same results.
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What can excessive exercise cause?
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What are 4 injuries caused by exercise?
1)Sprains.2)Dislocations.3)Torn ligaments.4)Torn tendons.
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Damage to a ligament, usually by being stretched too much.
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A bone comes out of its socket.
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Explain torn ligaments.
Ligament tears, causing more severe pain than a sprain-often means cannot control joint as bones aren't firmly attached.
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Explain torn tendons..
A tear in the tendon that attaches muscle to bone.Occurs when muscle contracts in one direction but it being pulled in opposite direction-painful.
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What are the main symptoms of a sprain?
Pain and swelling.
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What does sprain treatment involve?
Reducing pain and swelling and creating right conditions for it to heal.
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What can a sprain that isn't too severe be treated with?
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What does the R in RICE stand for?
Rest-to avoid more damage,especially in first 24 hours.Then, joint can slowly be used more.
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What does the I in RICE stand for?
Ice-Reduces swelling.Works by reducing temperature and blood flow to injured area.
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What does the C in RICE stand for?
Compression-firm bandage around injury to reduce swelling and prevent further damage.Can't be too tight or it will cut off blood flow.
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What does the E in RICE stand for?
Elevation-raise as high as possible to reduce swelling by making it easier for blood to flow back to heart.
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Who treats most injuries to the skeletal or muscular system?
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What do physiotherapists do?
1)Give treatment to reduce pain and swelling(e.g.RICE or cortisone injections).2)Therapies (E.g. laser treatment) to speed up healing.
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What else do physiotherapists do?
Advise exercises to rehabilitate after an injury.Could be graded exercises that steadily build up strength of a muscle or joint.
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Give an example of how a physiotherapist would treat a damaged knee.
1)Tensing muscle without moving knee.2)Sitting then slowly lowering and raising leg by bending knee.3)Stepping up and down.4)Standing,bending and straightening legs at knees.`
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What temperature should the body be?
Around 37 degrees.
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Why does the body need to balance the heat energy gained and lost?
To keep the core body temperature constant.
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Explain how the body controls body temperature.Use the example of the body being too hot.
1)Temperature receptors detect body temperature is too high.2)Hypothalamus(part of brain) acts as processing centre-receives information from receptors and triggers effectors.3)Effectors,e.g. sweat glands produce a response.
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Some effectors work antagonistically, what does this mean?
They work simultaneously to achieve a precise temperature-allows more sensitive response.E.g. one effector heats and another cools.
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What response do the effectors do when the body is too hot?
1)Vasodilation-more blood gets to surface of skin,warm blood loses more heat to surroundings.2)Sweat glands produce more sweat-when water from sweat evaporates,body cools.If you sweat a lot,may become dehydrated which increases body temperature.
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What is vasodilation?
When blood vessels close to the skin's surface get bigger in diameter.
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What response do the effectors do when the body is too cold?
1)Vasoconstriction-less blood gets to surface of skin,stops blood losing as much heat to surroundings.2)Shiver-muscles contract rapidly-increases rate of respiration and warms tissues surrounding muscles.
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What is vasocontsriction?
When blood vessels close to the skin's surface get smaller in diameter.
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How does the body control blood sugar levels?
With the hormone insulin.
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Explain how the blood sugar levels can get too high.
1)Eating foods high in simple sugars e.g. processed foods,causes blood sugar levels to rapidly rise.2)This s because simple sugars are digested and absorbed by blood quickly.
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What happens if somebody eats a huge cake?
1)Sugar levels rise rapidly.2)Pancreas releases insulin.3)Sugar removed from blood.4)Blood sugar level falls.
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What is diabetes?
When blood sugar level can't be controlled properly.
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What are the two types of diabetes?
Type 1 and type 2.
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Describe type 1 diabetes.
1)When pancreas stops producing insulin.2)Means blood sugar level can rise to dangerous level.3)Controlled by insulin therapy-injecting insulin into blood at mealtimes.
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Describe type 2 diabetes.
1)AKA late onset diabetes-poor diet or being obese increases risk of it.2)Occurs when body no longer responds to its own insulin or doesn't make enough.Can cause blood sugar levels to rise dangerously high.3)Can be controlled by exercise and diet.
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How can someone with type 2 diabetes keep their blood sugar level steady?
Eating foods high in fibre and complex carbohydrates-digested more slowly so sugar is absorbed over long period of time. So,sugar can be removed before levels get too high.
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Why are microorganisms ideal for industrial use?
1)Reproduce rapidly.2)Have plasmids-can be genetically modified.3)Biochemistry is simple-can easily make them produce things.4)Can make complex molecules that are difficult to artificially make.5)Aren't ethical concerns.
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What are large amounts of organisms grown in?
Fermenters-conditions are kept at optimum for growth.
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What are 5 useful things that microorganisms are used to make?
1)Antibiotics.2)Food from fungi.3)Enzymes for making food.4)Enzymes for washing powder.5)Biofuels.
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Explain how microorganisms can be used to make antibiotics.
Some bacteria and fungi can be used to produce medicines on large scale e.g. penicillin is made by growing penicillium mould in a fermenter.
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Explain how microorganisms can be used to make food from fungi.
Type of single cell protein made by fungi used for meat substitutes for vegetarians.
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Explain how microorganisms be used for enzymes for making food.
1)Enzymes needed to make good like cheese.2)Cheese traditionally made with enzymes-rennet-from lining of calf's stomach.3)Now chymosin-important enzyme in rennet,can be genetically modified microorganisms-used as vegetarian substitute for rennet.
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Explain how microorganisms be used for enzymes for washing powder.
Enzymes produced by bacteria used ot make biological washing powders as they help to break down stains.E.g. amylase can remove carbohydrate stains e.g. chocolate.Lipase can remove fat stains e.g.oil.
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Explain how microorganisms be used for Biofuels.
1)Yeast can produce ethanol-waste product of anaerobic respiration.In some countries, cars adapted to run on petrol and ethanol mixture'gasohol'.2)Microorganisms can produce biogas-used for heating,cooking.Made by fermentation of plant waste.
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What is genetic modification?
Where a gene from one organism is transferred to another.
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What will the organism with the transferred gene then do?Why can this be done?
Produce a protein using instructions in that gene.Can be made even though gene came from another organism as all organisms use same genetic code.
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Explain the stages of genetic modification.
1)Desired gene isolated-position on DNA identified.2)Useful gene replicated.3)Each gene joined to vector-carrier for gene making it easier to insert new cell.4)Vectors transferred to new cell.Continued...
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Genetic modification continued.
5)Not all new cells modified, e.g. vector may not have been transferred properly.6)Identify individuals that have been successfully modified.
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What are used as vectors?
Plasmids and viruses.
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How is genetic modification used to make medicine?
Cheap,quick,large quantites.1)Insulin used to treat diabetes.2)Gene for human insulin production transferred into bacteria.3)Bacteria grown in fermenter,insulin extracted.4)Insulin same as human insulin-less chance of allergic reaction.
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How is genetic modification used to make crops herbicide resistant?
1)Some plants have natural resistance to herbicides.2)We can cut gene responsible and give it to any plant.3)Herbicide-resistant crops useful for farmers as they use effective weedkiller without damaging crops.Continued....
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Herbicide resistance continued...
4)More expensive than normal crops,people worried weeds may get resistance.5)Could encourage use of weedkillers.Reduces biodiversity and pollute water systems.
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What are 3 ways to test for a genetic disease caused by a faulty allele?
1)Take a DNA sample.2)Make a gene probe.3)Use the gene probe.
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Describe a DNA sample.
DNA isolated from white blood cells often used to test for genetic disorders.Quick and easy to take a blood sample.
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Describe making a gene probe.
To identify faulty gene,produce gene probe.Strand of bases complementary to faulty gene you're looking for.
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Describe using a gene probe.
Gene probe mixed with DNA.If gene is present,probe will stick to it and bases will lock.
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Explain how you can locate a gene probe.
Fluorescent chemical marker stuck on end.It will glow when UV is shined on it.Marker will show if gene is present and where it's found.
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What is nanotechnology?
A new technology that uses tiny structures the size of some molecules.
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1)Food last longer,e.g. clay nanoparticles to plastic makes packaging better at keeping out oxygen.Some nanoparticles kill harmful microorganisms.2)Some 'smart packaging' uses nanoparticles to change properties e.g. milk carton change colour when off
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Describe stem cell technology.
1)Leukemia is cancer of blood or bone marrow-treated using stem cells.2)In future stem cells could be used to treat spinal cord injuries by replacing nerve tissue.
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What is biomedical engineering?
Uses engineering technologies to improve human health-includes creating replacement body parts.
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Describe biomedical engineering.
1)Replace cells that determine heart rate with pacemaker-implanted under skin and produces electrical current.2)Faulty heart valves replaced with animal or mechanical valves.
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Describe a perfect looped system.
1)All outputs are recycled-used as inputs for other processes.2)No outputs(waste) and no inputs.3)But most systems aren't perfect so there is waste.
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Give an example of a closed loop system.
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Explain how ecosystems are closed loop systems.
1)Oxygen=waste from photosynthesis,used for respiration.2)Carbon dioxide=waste from respiration,used for photosynthesis.3)Dead matter-food for microorganisms.4)Mineral nutrients-produced by microorganisms,used by plants.
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Why is no ecosystem a perfect closed loop system?
Some outputs always lost.1)Dead matter and nutrients carried out of ecosystem by air or water.2)Some organisms migrate from one ecosystem to another.
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Describe a stable ecosystem, give examples.
Outputs balanced by gains,e.g.lot of water lost from rainforest-flows away in rivers but is balanced by rainfall.
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Why is vegetation beneficial to ecosystems?
1)Reduces soil erosion-leaves protect from direct rainfall.2)Prevents extremes of temperatures.3)Promotes cloud formation.
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What are 4 ways human activity damages ecosystems?
1)Fertilisers.2)Removing biomass.3)Clearing vegetation.4)Non-recyclable waste.
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Describe human use of fertilisers.
Lead to eutrophication-1)Nitrates washed into rivers and lakes.2)Nitrates cause algae growth-block light.3)Other organisms die as they can't photosynthesise.4)Bacteria decompose dead material-use up oxygen.5)Oxygen not replaced.6)Fish die.
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Describe humans removing biomass.
1)Over-fishing-removes food source for some organisms in food chain.2)Unsustainable timber harvesting removes habitats and food sources for some organisms.
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Describe humans clearing vegetation.
1)Reduces biodiversity.2)Increase soil erosion-lead to silting of rivers,more likely to flood.3)Desertification-land becomes infertile.
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Describe humans creating non-recyclable waste.
Bioaccumilation-build up of heavy metals,like mercury.Concentration increases as you go up food chain, which can lead to death.
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Why aren't human systems e.g. household,agricultural,industrial, closed loop systems?
1)Human systems create non-recyclable waste.2)Use fossil fuels as energy source.
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Why does using fossil fuels mean human systems aren't closed loop?
1)Using fossil fuels releases gases that aren't reused in the system.2)They input energy from outside of system-energy came from sun millions of years ago.3)Fossil fuels take millions of years to form but seconds to use.
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Why do humans rely on ecosystems?
1)Provide us with air,water,food e,g.fish and game.2)Fertile soil full of minerals-used to produce crops.3)Pollination.
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What does sustainability mean?
Meeting the needs of the people today without harming the environment for future generations.
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What are things we can do to allow natural resources to be replaced naturally?
1)Fishing quotas-prevents some types of fish,like cod, becoming extinct as a result of over-fishing.2)Laws that insist companies plant new trees to replace those they cut down.
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Why is the sun's energy sustainable?
Can't be used up by human activities-amount of sunlight in future won't be affected by amount we use now.
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How is sunlight used as a sustainable energy source?
To make food by photosynthesis-initially stored as carbohydrates then transferred between organisms when eaten.
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How can sunlight be used as a sustainable source of energy for sustainable agriculture?
1)Sustainable agriculture aims to meet needs of people today without preventing future generations from meeting own needs.2)Sunlight could be used to power agricultural equipment e.g. heating and lighting.
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Why might conserving ecosystems conflict with community needs?
1)Communities may have to decide between causing damage to get resources and protecting ecosystem but getting fewer resources.2)Population growth-more people to feed.3)Causes tensions-have to decide if it's worth increasing food production.
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Other cards in this set
What does blood do?
Transports various substances around the body through the circulatory system.
What are four things is blood made up of?
Describe red blood cells.