B7 Keywords

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Blood
Transports various substances around the body through the circulatory system, e.g. carries oxygen and glucose to the muscles and takes carbon dioxide away.
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Red blood cells
Transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. They don't have a nucleus so they can be packed full with haemoglobin which binds to oxygen. They have a biconcave shape to give them a large surface area for exchanging oxygen.
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Plasma
The liquid that carries nutrients, antibodies, hormones and waste
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White blood cells
Help to fight infection by protecting your body against attack from microorganisms
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Platelets
Small fragments of cells that help the blood to clot at the wound
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Double circulatory system
Two circuits joined together
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Deoxygenated blood
Blood without oxygen
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Oxygenated blood
Blood with oxygen
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Arteries
Carry blood from the heart and branch into capillaries, high pressure, thick muscular and elastic walls, lumen smaller than veins, no valves, oxygenated blood
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Capillaries
Really tiny blood vessels, connects arteries to veins via the body cells, high blood pressure next to arteries low next to veins, one cell thick, very small lumen, no valves, both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
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Capillary beds
Networks of capillaries in tissue
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Tissue fluid
Formed in capillary beds and assists exchange of chemicals by diffusion between capillaries and tissues, to include oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose and urea
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Vertebrate
Having a backbone and an internal skeleton (endoskeleton)
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Invertebrate
Lacking a backbone or having an exoskeleton
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Ligaments
Holds bones at a joint together, helps to stabilise joints and allow for movement
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Cartilage
Stops bones from rubbing and reduces friction
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Synovial fluid
Lubricates the joints to allow them to move more easily by reducing friction
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Tendons
Attaches bones to muscles, transmits forces between muscle and bone
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Muscles
Move bones at a joint by contracting (becoming shorter)
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Antagonistic pairs
A pair that works in opposite directions, such as biceps and triceps
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Being fit
How well you can do physical activities
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Resting level
Your heart rate and blood pressure when you aren't exercising
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Recovery period
The time it takes for your blood pressure and heart rate to return to their resting levels after exercise
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Body mass index (BMI)
Based on your mass and height, body mass (kg) / height squared (metres squared)
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Proportion of body fat
The percentage of your body mass that's made up of fat
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Accuracy
The results should be as close to what's actually happening as possible
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Repeatability
Giving reliable results so that if the procedure was repeated, you'd get the same results
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Sprains
Damage to a ligament, usually by being stretched too much
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Dislocations
A bone comes out of its socket
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Torn ligaments
The ligament tears causing severe pain and often means loss of control of the joint because the bones are no longer attached firmly together
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Torn tendons
A tear in the tendon that attaches the muscle to its bone, which occurs when a muscle contracts in one direction, but is being pulled in the opposite direction
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RICE method
Rest Ice Compression Elevation
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Physiotherapist
Can help give treatment and therapies and help to advise on the best exercises to help the injury
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Hypothalamus
A part of the brain which acts as a processing centre, receiving information from the temperature receptors, and sending instructions to trigger the effectors automatically
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Temperature receptors
Detects if the core body temperature is too high or low
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Effectors
Produce a response
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Vasodilation
When blood vessels close to the skin's surface get bigger in diameter meaning more blood gets to the surface of the skin so the warm blood loses more of its heat to the surroundings
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Sweating
When your sweat glands produce more sweat, when the water in the sweat evaporates heat is used, which cools the body
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Vasoconstriction
When blood vessels close to the skin's surface get smaller in diameter, meaning less blood gets to the surface of the skin, which stops the blood losing as much heat to the surroundings
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Shivering
When your muscles contract rapidly, increasing the rate of respiration and warming the tissue surrounding the muscles
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Simple sugars
Causes your blood sugar level to rise rapidly as they are digested and absorbed into your blood really quickly
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Insulin
Helps to keep the level of sugar in your blood steady by causing sugar to be removed from the blood if the blood sugar level gets too high
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Pancreas
Releases insulin when the blood sugar level gets too high
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Type 1 diabetes
Where the pancreas stops producing insulin
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Type 2 diabetes
When the body no longer responds to its own insulin, or it doesn't make enough insulin
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Fermenters
Where large amounts of microorganisms are grown, the conditions inside are kept at optimum for growth to get the biggest possible amount of desirable products
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Genetic modification
Where a gene from one organism is transferred to another
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Vector
A carrier for the gene which makes it easier to insert into a new cell, plasmids and viruses are often used as vectors
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Gene probe
A strand of bases that's complementary to the faulty gene that you're looking for
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Nanotechnology
A new technology that uses tiny structures that are about the size of some molecules
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Leukaemia
A cancer of the blood or bone marrow
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Biomedical engineering
Uses engineering technology to improve human health
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Perfect closed loop system
Where all the outputs from processes or stores within the system are recycled, they're used as inputs to other processes or stores in the system
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Ecosystems
A type of closed loop system because most of the waste (output) produced by organisms isn't lost, it's recycled as food or reactants for other organisms in the system
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Stable ecosystem
Where the outputs are balanced by gains
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Eutrophication
Nitrates washed into waters causing algal growth at surface which blocks light so organisms below die as they can't photosynthesise, bacteria decompose dead material and use up oxygen which isn't replaced so animals that need oxygen suffocate
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Non-recyclable waste
Waste that can't be used again within a system, so the waste can build up to harmful levels in an ecosystem
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Bioaccumulation
As you go up the food chain the amount of waste in an organism will increase (or accumulate)
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Pollination
The transfer of pollen grains between plants so they can be fertilised
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Sustainability
Meeting the needs of today's population without harming the environment so that future generations can still meet their own needs
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Fishing quotas
Only allowing a certain amount of fishing in an area to prevent over-fishing
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Sustainable agriculture
Aims to meet the food needs of today's population without preventing future generations from meeting their own needs
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Joint
A place where two or more bones meet
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Hinge joints
Only allows forwards and backwards movement, works like a lever, moves 180 degrees, has cartilage, antagonistic
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Ball and socket joints
Rounded end of one bone fits into a cup-shaped on other bone, has cartilage, 360 degrees, friction free
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Immovable/fibrous joints
Bones held by tough fibre, fused together to form rigid structure, don't move
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Pivot joint
Bones rotate around each other by 360 degrees, muscles limit how far we turn, contains synovial fluid in joint
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Veins
Takes blood back to the heart, low pressure, thin, elastic, hardly any muscle, much wider lumen, valves, deoxygenated blood minus in the pulmonary vein
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Memory
The storage and retrieval of information
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Desertification
Areas of desert created by the destruction of natural vegetation, typically caused by deforestation, poor farming, slash and burn, overgrazing, soil erosion, intensive farming. Stop with wind breaks, control land use, afforestation, eco farming
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Totipotent
Can turn into any type of cell (only zygote because of the placenta cells)
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Pluripotent
Can turn into any type of cell except those that form a placenta or embryo
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Multipotent
Can turn into several types of cell
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Stem cells
Undifferentiated cells
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Slash and burn
A method of agriculture in which existing vegetation is cut down and burned off before new seeds are sown
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Wind breaks
Protects soil from being blown away
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Afforestation
Planting trees on desert
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Biodiversity
The variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat
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Biomass
Organic matter used as a fuel, especially in a power station for the generation of electricity.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. They don't have a nucleus so they can be packed full with haemoglobin which binds to oxygen. They have a biconcave shape to give them a large surface area for exchanging oxygen.

Back

Red blood cells

Card 3

Front

The liquid that carries nutrients, antibodies, hormones and waste

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Help to fight infection by protecting your body against attack from microorganisms

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Small fragments of cells that help the blood to clot at the wound

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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