B7

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  • Created by: Faith16
  • Created on: 20-04-16 18:05
What does blood travel around in?
The circulatory system
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What are red blood cells?
Transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Don't have a nucleus so they can carry lots of haemoglobin (binds with oxygen). Biconcave shape-large surface area for exchanging oxygen
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What is plasma?
Liquid that carries nutrients (glucose and amino acids) antibodies, hormones and waste (carbon dioxide and urea)
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What are white blood cells?
Help to fight infection by protecting your body against attack from microorganisms
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What are platelets?
Small fragments of cells that help the blood to clot at the site of the wound
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What is a double circulatory system?
Two circuits joined together- one pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take oxygen then return to the heart then the other pumps around oxygenated blood to the body
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Describe the layout of the right side of the heart.
Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body, blood moves to right ventricle which pumps blood to the lungs (through pulmonary artery)
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Describe the layout of the left side of the heart.
Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs (from pulmonary vein), blood moves to left ventricle which pumps it out to the whole body (via aorta)
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Why are valves in the heart?
To stop the back flow of blood
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What are the two arteries that supply the heart muscle cells with blood?
Coronary
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Why is the left ventricle wall thicker than the right?
As it has to pump blood all the way around the body.
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Why do atria have thinner walls?
As they only pump blood to the ventricles.
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What are capillaries?
Tiny blood vessels which have permeable walls so substances can diffuse in and out (found in capillary beds)
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What are tissue fluids?
When blood passes through the capillary beds small molecule (water,glucose and oxygen) are forced out of the capillaries to form tissue fluid. The substances can then diffuse out of the tissue fluid into the cells.
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How does tissue fluid get rid of waste chemicals?
The waste chemicals (carbon dioxide and urea) diffuse out of the cells into the tissue fluid then into the capillaries
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What is the job of the skeleton?
To support the body to allow it to move, protect vital organs
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What are the bones at a joint held together by?
Ligaments
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What are ligaments?
They have a high tensile strength but are also slightly elastic so they can help pro stabilise joints by still allow movement
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What is cartilage?
At the end of the bone to reduce friction and is slightly compressed so they act like shock absorbers
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What do membranes do at joints?
Release a oily synovial fluid to lubricate joints to allow them to move more easily by reducing friction
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What are bones attached to muscles by?
Tendons
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How do muscles move bones?
By contracting
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What happens when a muscle contracts?
Tendons can't stretch much so when a muscle contracts a tendon pulls on the bone which transmits a force from the muscle to the bone.
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What can't muscles do?
Push on bones to move a joint
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What are antagonistic pairs?
Pair of muscle so they can both pull on a joint rather than one having to try and push a joint
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What happens when a bisect contracts?
It pulls the power arm upwards (triceps relaxes)
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What happens when a tricep contracts?
The lower arm is pulled back down (bicep relaxes)
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How is being fit measured?
By how well you can do physical activities
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What background information does a fitness practitioner need to know to make a fitness regime?
Health problems, current medication, previous fitness treatments (what has and hasn't worked), family medical history,physical activity and lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking, drinking)
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What is a resting level?
Your heart rate and blood pressure when not exercising.
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What is the recovery period?
The amount of time taken for your blood pressure and heart rate to return to its resting level after exercise- shorter it is the fitter you are
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How do you work out someones body mass index (BMI)?
Body mass (kg) divided by height squared (m)
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Why is a BMI test not always accurate?
As body mass also considers muscle which is denser than fat
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What is the alternative to BMI?
Proportion of body fat- the percentage of your body mass that is made up of fat
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What is any assessment of progress dependent on?
Accuracy and repeatability
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What happens when you sprain something?
Damage to a ligament- usually by being stretched too much
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What is a dislocation?
When a bone comes out of its socket
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What is a torn ligament?
When the ligament tears- severe pain and will often mean loss of control of the joint because the bones are no longer attached firmly together
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What is a torn tendon?
A tear in the tendon that attaches the muscle to its bone- muscle contracts in one direct but is being pulled in the opposite direction
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What is the R.I.C.E method for a sprain?
Rest- first 24 hours then progressively used more and more. Ice- reduce swelling but reducing temperature and blood flow. Compression- reduce swelling and prevent further damage from excessive movement. Elevation-reduce swelling (blood back to heart)
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What is a physiotherapist?
Someone who treats skeletal-muscular injuries
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What might a damaged knee exercise consist of?
Standing up and tensing muscles without moving knee, setting with lower leg hanging loose then slowly raising and lowering the leg, stepping up and down on a box and standing, bending and straightening the legs at the knees
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What temperature does our core body temperature have to be?
37 degrees
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What detect the external temperature?
Temperature receptors in the skin
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What detects the temperature in our blood?
Receptors in the hypothalamus (part of the brain)
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What is the negative feedback for your core body temperature?
Too hot- Receptors detect too high, hypothalamus acts as processing centre, effectors (sweat glands) produce response, counteract change. Too cold- same but effectors are muscles
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What is vasodilation?
Blood vessels close to the skins surface get bigger in diameter- more blood gets to the surface of the skin so it loses heat to its surroundings
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How does sweat cool you down and why is this dangerous if you are dehydrated?
Cool you down as the sweat evaporates heat is used which cools the body. If you are dehydrated you produce less sweat so your core body temperature will increase
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What is vasoconstriction?
Blood vessels close to the skins surface get smaller in diameter- less blood gets to the surface of the skin which stops the blood losing as much heat to surroundings
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What happens when you shiver?
Your muscles contract rapidly which increases the rate of repression which warms the tissue surrounding the muscles
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What does eating food high in sugar cause?
Your blood sugar level to rise rapidly- digested and absorbed into blood very quickly
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What happens when your blood sugar level gets too high?
Pancreas releases insulin which causes sugar to be removed from the blood
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What is type 1 diabetes?
Pancreas stops producing insulin (blood sugar can rise to a dangerous level). Controlled by injecting insulin into the blood after eating (has to be the right amount of insulin)
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What is type 2 diabetes?
Called late onset diabetes as develops later in life due to having a poor diet- body no longer responds to its own insulin or doesn't make enough.
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How can type 2 diabetes be controlled?
By exercising and eating a carefully controlled diet- high in fibre and complex carbohydrates (digested more slowly so the sugar is absorbed into the blood over a longer period of time)
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What is a closed loop system?
Where all the outputs from processes or stores within the system are recycled and used as inputs to other processes or stores in the system
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Why is no system a perfect closed loop?
As systems have inputs put into them and outputs taken out
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What is an example of a closed loop system in an ecosystem?
Oxygen is a waste product of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is a waste product of respiration, dead organic matter is used by microorganisms as food, mineral nutrients are produced by microorganisms when digestive enzymes break down organic matter
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Question 58 continued
these nutrients are absorbed and used by plants. Many organisms like fish and plants produce large quantities of reproductive structures (e.g. eggs,sperm,pollen,flowers and fruits) as all the structures won't grow into adult organisms- eaten
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How are some outputs lost?
Dead organic matter and nutrients can be carried away by water or air, fallen leaves may be blown away by winds or carried by rivers, some organisms migrate to other ecosystems
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How is vegetation beneficial to ecosystems?
Reduces soil erosion (e.g. leaves protect soil from direct rainfall and roots bind soil together), prevents extremes of temperatures and can promote cloud formation
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How do humans unbalance ecosystems?
Changing the inputs and outputs e.g. using fertilisers to give plants extra nutrients unbalance ecosystems because input of nutrients is higher than normal. Can lead to eutrophication.
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What is eutrophication?
Nitrates from fields washed into rivers and lakes by rain, nitrates cause algae to grown at surface of water preventing light from reaching other plants, organisms die because they can't photosynthesise, bacteria decompose dead material
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Question 63 continued
and use up oxygen, oxygen isn't replaced because photosynthesis is only taking place at the surface, animals that need oxygen from the water lower down (e.g. fish) will suffocate
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How can humans taking biomass out of an ecosystem for their own use damage it?
Over-fishing (removes food source in some food chains )unsustainable timber harvesting (removes habitats and food sources)
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How does humans clearing natural areas for vegetation produce a problem?
Reduce the biodiversity of an ecosystem, increase soil erosion (silting of rivers making more likely to flood), desertification (land becomes infertile)
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What is bioaccumulation?
Where a small bit of waste (e.g. metal) is eaten by small organisms and stored in small amounts but they are then eaten by predators so a large amount of metal will be stored in the predators tissues, enough to kill it and so on
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Why are human systems not closed loop systems?
Create non-recyclable waste, fossil fuels are used as an energy source- produce waste emissions, inputs energy from outside a system, can't be made again within the system (millions of year to form and seconds to use)
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Why do humans rely on ecosystems?
Provide us with clean air, water and food, provide us with fertile soil full of mineral nutrients, crop production needs pollination
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What is sustainability?
Meeting the needs of todays population without harming the environment so that future generations can still meet their own needs
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How can natural resources be replaced naturally?
Fishing quotas (fixed amount) have even introduced to prevent over fishing and replant trees every time they are cut down (wood and paper production)
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How is sunlight a sustainable source of energy?
It can't be used up by human activities, food by photosynthesis, energy stored in the form of carbohydrates (travels up food chain)
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What is sustainable agriculture and how does sunlight aid it?
Aims to meet the food needs of today without damaging future (not using up resources or damaging resources). Sunlight used to power equipment e.g. heating and lighting systems in greenhouse and irrigation systems.
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How can conserving natural ecosystems conflict with community needs?
Because they need resources, population growth- more people have to be fed
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Why are microorganisms (like bacteria and fungi) used on a industrial scale?
Reproduce rapidly under right conditions, have plasmid (can be genetically modified), biochemistry is simple (few reactions) , can make complex molecules (difficult to produce artificially) and no ethnical concerns
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What are microorganisms grown in and why?
Fermeters as they are kept at optimum for growth
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What can microorganisms be used to make?
Antibiotics (e.g. penicillin), food from fungi (e.g. quorn), enzymes for making food, enzymes for washing powder and biofuels (e.g. gasohol- mixture of ethanol and petrol)
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How are enzymes used to make food?
Cheese is used by using chymosion instead of enzymes called rennet (from lining of a calfs stomach)- this is a vegetarian substitute
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What is genetic modification?
Where a gene from one organism is transferred to another
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How is genetic modification carried out?
1) Desirable protein is isolated. 2) Useful gene replicated to create lots of copies. 3) Gene joined to a vector (normally plasmids and viruses). 4) Vectors containing gene transferred to new cell (bacteria). 5) Select successfully modified cells
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How is genetic modification used in medicine?
Used for insulin, gene for human insulin production transferred into bacteria, bacteria grown in fermenter, human insulin extracted when produced (less chance of allergic reaction as its human insulin)
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How is genetic modification used to make crops herbicide resistant?
Some plants have a natural resistance to herbicides (e.g. weedkillers) so we can cut out the gene responsible and put it into other plants- more expensive,could transferred to weeds, encourage use weedkillers,reduce biodiversity, pollute food chains
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How do you test for a genetic disorder?
Take a DNA sample (DNA in white blood cells-take blood). Make a gene probe (strand of bases that are complementary to faulty gene) then use gene probe (if gene is present bases will lock together)
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How do you locate the gene probe in someones body?
Fluorescent chemical marker is put on the end of the sequence- marker will glow if you shine a UV light on it marker only shows if gene is present
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How can nanotechnology improve packing properties?
Make food last longer (clay nanoparticles to plastic stops oxygen and moisture getting in and can kill harmful microorganisms). Smart packaging- nanoparticles change packaging properties depending on conditions-milk carton change colour when gone off
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How can stem cell technology be used to treat illnesses?
Treat spinal cord injuries bu replacing damaged nerve tissues, treat leukaemia by replacing faulty bone marrow by bone marrow transplant- stem cells become healthy blood cells
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How can biomedical engineering be used to replace body parts?
Pacemarker- produces electric current to control heart beat if cells stop working to determine how fast the heart beats. Faulty heart valves can be replaced with animal or mechanical valves.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are red blood cells?

Back

Transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Don't have a nucleus so they can carry lots of haemoglobin (binds with oxygen). Biconcave shape-large surface area for exchanging oxygen

Card 3

Front

What is plasma?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are white blood cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are platelets?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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