understanding microbes, harmful microbes, useful microbes, biofuels,life in soil,microscopic life in water, enzymes in action, gene technology, 

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what are bacteria cells and and how are they different to to plant and animal cells?
they are single celled organisms, and they are simpler they dont have a real nucleus
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what are the different types of bacteria cells?
spherical, rod, curved rod, spiral
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what habitats can bacteria survive in?
hot springs, acid peat bogs and inside humans
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where o bacteria get their food from??
organic nutrients, some make own food
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whats the type of reproduction bacteria cells use?
asexual, its called binary fusion
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where can viruses survive?
can only reproduce in another living cell
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how does the virus infect a living cell?
virus attaching to a host and inject genetic genetic material, uses cell to make new componants for the virus, the host cell splits causing a virus
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what is yeast, how does it reproduce and what conditions are needed for this???
a single celled fungus, they reproduce asexually by budding which means they just splt from eachother. they need lots of sugar, optimum pH and removal of waste products .
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at what temperature do the enzymes in yeast denature?
40 degrees
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what is aseptic technique?
growing bacteria without contaminating what is around it, sterile plates perpared with nutrient agar containing food and water needed for microbes. lift corner of agar plate and put swab there, keep in moist warm place, colonies of bacteria will be v
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what are pathogens?
microorganisms that cause disease
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why is disease more likely to spread after a natural disaster?
sewage and water supplies danaged so could be contaminated, electrical appliances stop working, hospitals destroyed, roads damaged making it hard to reach injured
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what is the germ theory and who invented it?
microorganisms in the air cause food to decay and louis pasteur in 1860s.
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give an example of an antiseptic?
carbolic acid which prevents infections of wounds
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what is penecillan used for and who discovered it?
flemming in 1928, harmful bacteria can be controlled by using antiseptics
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how is yogurt made in the process of using fermenters?
sterilised to kill pathogens, raw milk heated (pasteurization), live bacteria added then incubated for hours, bacteria reproduces feeding on lactose, manufacturer tests for flavour&consistancy, flavours and colouring added
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what is fermentation?
anerobic respiration in yeast, produces alcoholic drinks
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what needs to be done to bottled beers to prevent spoilage of microbes?
heated to 72 degrees for 15 seconds and kills harmful microorganisms
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why must yeast be filtered out of the beer?
the beer would continue to respire causing a lot of CO2 meaning the bottles would explode
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why do people distill alcoholic drinks?
used to produce spirits and makes very strong alcohol .
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what is the process of distilling an alcohol?re or other was
heated to evaporate the alcohol, then the concertrated alcohol is trapped and cooled back into a liquid.
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what gives yogurt its taste and texture?
lactobacillius which feeds on the lactose
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what is biomass and what are some exmaples of biofuels??
created by using some glucose and to make starch and callulose, this is biomass. can be burned release energy as fuel. manure/other waste, bacteria/yeast in fermenter (releases methane)
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what is biogas and what does it contain?
when bacteria feed on dead plant and animal material producing waste called biogas. contains-METHANE, CO2, traces of H, N, hydrogen sulfide
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what is a bio gas digester?
biogas made on a large scale using the continous process
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why is biogas digesters dependent on temperature?
because at low temp it doesnt produce enough and the bacteria reproduce slowly (barely any biogas produced) and high temp above 45 degrees will denature the enzymes
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what are biofuels and what could they be an alternative to?
good alternative to fossil fuels and they can do the same as biogas
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what are the factors preventing the increase of greenhouse gasses when using biofuels?
burned at same rate biomass is being produced and and crops arent cleared in order to help grow things for biofuels
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what is gasohol and where can it be found to be used? why is it used there?
it is an alternative to petrol oor diesel and can be used in places like brazil because they have more sugar cane than oil making it easier to produce fuel for cars by using gasohol.
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what is soil and mixtue of??
mineral particles, humus (dead animal and plant material), water, living organisms, oxygen
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what does soil provide plants with in order for them to grow?
minerals-phosphates and nitrates, water for photosynthesis and transpirtion, anchorge for roots to stand up,
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whats the difference between sandy, loam and clay soil?
sandy-large mineral molecules. Loam-a mixture of clay and sand. Clay-small mineral molecules
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what can farmers or gardeners add to acidic soil to neutralise it?
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what does humu do to the soil?
help retain moisture and oxygen
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how to test for amount of water in soil?
weigh soil sample, heat in oven for 24 hrs (then re-weigh) and another 24 hrs (then re weigh) %OF WATER= MASS OF WATER/INITIAL MASS X100
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how to test air content in soil??
soil sample in measuring cylinder, add 100 cubic cm of water, place lid on cylinder and shake to release bubbles, record new leven of water. STARTING READING - NEW VOLUME = VOLUME OF AIR (cm cubed)
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what 4 living organisms live in soil?
herbivores, detritvores, decomposers and carnivores
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what do earthworms do for the soil?
they can mix up the soil layers as they burrow in the soil, create drainage, drag dead leaves into their burrows to be decomposed, help neutralise the soil
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what are some advantages and disadvantes to living in water? name 2 of each
ADVANTAGES- no shortage or worry of dehydration, less variation tin temp, waste is easily disposed of . DISADVANTAGES - water is dense so hard to move, might be hard to control absorbtion
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what are the different types of plankton in the water?
zooplankton- animals in the water, phytoplankton-microscopic plants
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what is phytoplanktons jobs? how do they make sugars?
they are producers and make sugar through photosynthesis
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what is marine snow and how does it help the microorganisms in the lower regions?
marine snow is dead/dying animals and plants falling at the top of the sea, then consumed by microbes and zooplankton creating sunlight for the microorganisms in the lower regions of the sea
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what are examples of water polltuion that affect microorganisms, plants and animals?
sewage, oil, ferillisers, pesticides and detergents
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what is europhotication?
fertilisers or sewage running into the water polluting it, phosphates and nitrates lead to lots of algae growing meaning no sunlight underwater- plants die or rot.
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what is a biological indicator and whats an example of one?
they indicate the pH and oxygen levels in water. an example of one would be the rat tailed maggot,
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what are the problems with livivng in water?
some microorganisms find it hard to balance water as they are only a single celled organism. the water is constantly diffusing into the cell by osmosis, if too much water enters it can burst due to no cell wall.
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what are enzymes?
biological catalysts
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what can enzymes be used to do?
seperate curds when making cheese, extract juice from fruit, alter or improve flavour of foods, used in biological washing powders to break down food stains
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what sort of temperatures work best when using a biological washing powder to get rid of stains such as food, blood and grass stains?
low temps and a neutral pH of 7
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how can you sweeten food?
sucrose (cane sugar) made up of two smaller sugars and can be broken down using sucrase enzyme.
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what does it mean when you are lactose intolerant?
you dont produce latase
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how can you immobolise an enzyme??
making them in alginate jelly beads or putting them on reagent sticks. this means you can easily seperate the enzyme from the reaction
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whats the benedict test?
this can be used to test sugar, but you will need a large smaple of urine or blood. its them heated with benedicts reagent, if it turns red then glucose is present.
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what enzymes are used in biological washing powders?
lipase, carbohydrase and amalyse
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what are raegent sticks and why are they used?
can test blood sugar and dipped in blood or urine and changes to different colous if glucose is present
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what is genetic engineering?
genes from one organism going to another organism
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is it true the genetic code is universal and DNA structures of all living organisms are the same?
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whats an organism that has new genes instered into it?
transgenic organism
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what are the steps to genetic engineering?
-desirable gene is identified. -gene removed from DNA. -DNA of another organism cut open and new gene inserted. -new gene works in transgenic organism. -transgenic code can be copied to produce identical coppies
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what are the enzymes used in genetic engineering?
restriction enzymes which are used to cut open DNA leaving sticky ends, ligase enzymes to rejoin DNA strands.
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what is the technique called that scientists use to identify transgenic organisms?
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what happens when the new gene is inserted in genetic engineering??
another gene with anti-biotic resistance is also insterted in
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what are the uses of genetic engineering?
make vaccines, make medicines, use human proteins like insulin and human growth hormone, improve crop plants
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where is plasmid found??
in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell
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how is human insulin made?
insulin making gene identified and cut out using special tool. enzyme then cuts loop in cytoplasm of bacteria. enzyme used to insert insulin to loop. loop is reinserted into bacterium, when dividing it replicates. (makes insulin)
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what can DNA finger printing be used for?
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how can you make a sample of DNA?``
Extraction-dna is extracted from blood. Fragmentation-DNA cut into fragments using restriction enzymes. Seperation-DNA sections seperted using electrophoresis. Visualising pattern-DNA fingerprint analysed by somparing it with reference sample;blood
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what are the different types of bacteria cells?


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what habitats can bacteria survive in?


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Card 4


where o bacteria get their food from??


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Card 5


whats the type of reproduction bacteria cells use?


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