B6 - Beyond the Microscope

What are the four structures of bacteria?
1. Spherical, 2. Rod, 3.Spiral, 4.Curved Rod
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How do bacteria reproduce?
They clone using a method called BINARY FISSION.
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What are the three main parts of a bacteria's structure?
1. Flagellum (for movement), 2. Cell Wall (to hold it's shape), 3. DNA Strands
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How can you grow bacteria?
In fermenters (for large numbers) or cultured in a Petri Dish (for lab purposes)
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Why must ASEPTIC conditions be used when handling bacteria?
To prevent the spread of disease and to prevent any cultures being contaminated.
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What can bacteria cause?
Spread of disease/disease and food spoilage.
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Why is the maximum incubation temperature in schools 25˚c?
Incubating at temperatures close to 37˚c could cause health harming bacteria to grow.
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What is yeast?
A fungi used in the production of alcohol.
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What are the four main parts of a yeasts structure?
1.Nucleus, 2. Cytoplasm, 3. Cell Wall, 4. Bud
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How does yeast reproduce?
Asexually, by forming a bud, which grows and splits off as an exact copy.
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What four things does the growth rate of yeast depend on?
1. Availability of food, 2. pH, 3. Removal of waste products, 4. Temperature
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By how much does the growth rate in yeast change with every 10˚c temperature rise?
It doubles until it reaches it's optimum temperature. Above the optimum temperature the growth stops, as the enzymes are denatured.
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Which is smallest: Bacteria, Yeast or Viruses?
Viruses are smallest. They are microbes, and are not classified as living cells.
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How do viruses reproduce?
1. The virus attaches to a host cell, 2. The virus injects its DNA into the host, 3. The host makes more viruses using the DNA, 4. The host splits, allowing the viruses out.
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What are the two main parts in a viruses structure?
1. A protein coating, 2. Genetic material (DNA Strands)
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What diseases do Bacteria cause?
Cholera, TB, Food Poisoning, Septicaemia, Dysentery.
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What disease does Fungi cause?
Athletes Foot
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What diseases do Viruses cause?
Chicken Pox, Influenza (Flu), Small Pox, AIDs.
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What diseases do Protozoan cause?
Malaria, Dysentery, Food Poisoning
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How can harmful microbes enter the body?
1. Nose (the air), 2. Mouth (food), 3. Skin (needles or insects) 4. Reproductive Organs
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What are the four stages of an infectious disease?
1. Entering the body, 2. Incubation Period (reproduction occurs), 3. Toxins are released into the body, 4. Symptoms appear.
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How can you prevent the spread of infectious diseases?
1. Cooking food thoroughly and sterilising water, 2. Wearing face masks in contaminated areas, 3. Reduced contact
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How can natural disasters spread disease?
1. Electricity supplies damaged, 2. Water and sewage damaged and mixed, 3. Health services disrupted, 4. Displacement
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What did Louis Pasteur discover?
That in order to stop the food and drink (wine) going "off" it needed to be heated to kill most bacteria. This is called Pasteurisation.
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What did Joseph Lister discover?
That antiseptics (carbolic acid) should be used to prevent the spread of disease.
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What did Alexander Fleming discover?
That Penicillin (made from cantaloupe melon mould) kills bacteria and can be used as medicine.
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What are Antibiotics?
Antibiotics are substances that can kill bacteria or stop their growth. Penicillin is an example of these.
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What are Antiseptics?
Antiseptics are substances that kill or stop the growth of bacteria on a surface.
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What are the three stages of Antibiotic Resistance?
1. A large proportion of bacteria is non-resistant, but a small number are. 2. These reproduce and multiply. The non-resistant die. 3. There are more resistant than non-resistant.
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What is MRSA?
MRSA is a dangerous bacteria that has become completely resistant to antibiotics. It's scientific name is "methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus".
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do bacteria reproduce?

Back

They clone using a method called BINARY FISSION.

Card 3

Front

What are the three main parts of a bacteria's structure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can you grow bacteria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why must ASEPTIC conditions be used when handling bacteria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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