B6

What does every cell have on its surface?
Antigens
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What are the antigens on our cells compared to a microorganism's antigens?
Different and our body can detect this
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What do our white blood cells do when they recognise different antigens?
Specific antibodies which join up with the antigens and inactive or destroy pathogen
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What do some of your white blood cells do?
Remember the right antibody needed so you become immune to the disease
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Why do we get ill when we first meet a pathogen?
Because there is a delay whilst out body figures out the right antibody
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What does immunisation involve?
Giving you a vaccine made of dead or inactive form of a disease to stimulate your immune response
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What does the vaccine do to your white blood cells?
Stimulate them to produce the antibodies needed to fight pathogen
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What is herd immunity?
Where a large proportion of the population is immune to a disease so the spread of the pathogen is reduced
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What do painkillers not do?
Treat the virus
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What can you use to kill bacteria outside your body?
Antiseptics and disinfectants
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What can antibiotics do?
Kill bacterial pathogens
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How do antibiotics work?
They kill the bacteria that caused the disease
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Why are some antibiotics put straight in your blood stream when you are unwell?
Because they reach the pathogens quicker
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What can antibiotics not do?
Kill viral pathigens
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What do viruses do?
Reproduce inside the cells
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Why is it hard to develop drugs that can cure viruses?
Because they may damage body cells
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What are evolving?
Strains of bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotic
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Where can you get digitalis from?
Foxgloves
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What is a use of digitalis?
They strengthen the heartbeat
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Who discovered penicillin?
Alexander Fleming
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How was penicillin discovered?
Growing bacteria and left lid of and saw some bacteria had mould growing on them and saw a clear ring in the jelly around the spots of mould- something had killed the bacteria
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What happened 10 years later?
Ernst Chain and Howard Florey extracted penicillin and it worked
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What are most new drugs?
Synthesised- however may be chemically extracted from a plant
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What are the features of a good medicine?
Effective, safe, stable and successfully taken into and out of body
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What is the first stage of testing a new drug?
In a lab they are tested for toxicity and efficacy on cells, tissues and organs
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What is the second stage of drug testing?
Tested on animals to find out how they work on a whole organism- possible does and side effects
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What is preclinical testing?
Testing in a lab on tissues, cells, organs and animals
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What is the third stage of drug testing?
Very low doses to healthy people to check for side effects
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What is the fourth stage of drug testing?
Bigger clinic to find optimum dose
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What are double blind trials?
Some are given a placebo and some are given the new drug- neither the patient nor doctor know who has which one
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What are published after a trial?
In journals so other scientists can check
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What are hybridomas?
A cancer cell combined with cells from mice or people
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What are monoclonal antibodies?
Proteins that are produced to target particular cells or chemicals
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Why do they combine lymphocytes and tumour cells?
Lymphocytes produce antibodies and tumour cells divide
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What do monoclonal antibodies only bind to?
One specific antigen
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How do pregnancy tests work?
They rely on monoclonal antibodies that bind to the hormone HCG. This produces a colour change as a sign as positive chemical produced
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How can monoclonal antibodies be used to diagnose disease?
They can carry markers which makes it easy to detect problems
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How are monoclonal antibodies used in hospitals?
TYhey can meausre the levels of hormones and other chemicals in the blood e.g. HIV
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How can monoclonal antibodies be used in research?
They locate specific molecules by linking molecule of dye so they can see the build up of dye
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What are the three ways monoclonal antibodies can be used to treat cancer?
Use them to trigger immune system to attack the cancer, block receptors to stop dividing and carry toxic drugs or radiation to stop dividing
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What is an advantage of monoclonal antibodies?
They only bind to specific disease or damaged cells
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What is another advantage of monoclonal antibodies?
Treat a wide range of conditions
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What is one problem with monoclonal antibodies?
They are expensive to develop
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Why aren't monoclonal antibodies widely used?
Because they created more side effects than expected
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the antigens on our cells compared to a microorganism's antigens?

Back

Different and our body can detect this

Card 3

Front

What do our white blood cells do when they recognise different antigens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do some of your white blood cells do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do we get ill when we first meet a pathogen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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