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  • Created by: Faith16
  • Created on: 06-12-15 16:17
What is a stimulus?
A change in the environment
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What does your nervous system consist of?
Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord), Sensory Neurones (neurones that carry impulses from receptors to CNS), Motor Neurones ( neurones that carry impuses from CNS to effectors), Effectors (all your muscles and glands)
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What is a receptor?
Cells that detect stimuli.
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What are the two types of effectors?
Muscles cells (make up muscles) and Hormone Secreting Cells (found in glands e.g. cells that secrete the hormone ADH are found in the pituitary gland)
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Give an example of how the Central Nervous System works.
Cat goes towards bird (stimulus), receptors in birds eye stimulated, sensory neurones carry information to receptors to CNS, CNS decides what to do, CNS sends information to birds wings (effectors) along motor neurones to fly away.
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What is an axon?
Made from the nerve cells cytoplasm stretched out into a long fibre and surrounded by a cell membrane. Also surrounded by a fatty sheath that acts as an electrical insulator shielding the neurone from cells and speeds up the electrical impluse
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What is an electrical impulse?
Carry information around the body very quickly so the responses can happen fast but they are short-lived
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What else is used to carry information around the body?
Hormones- produced in glands and travel around the blood, the responses are brought about more slowly and they're longer lasting than electrical impulses.
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What is a synapse?
A gap between two neurones
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How do electrical impulses travel around the body?
see page 57 of revision guide (words not included: pre sunaptic neuron, re-uptake channel and post sunaptic neuron)
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How do drugs affect transmissions across synapses?
Ecstasy and Prozac block the re-uptake synapses that removes the extra chemical transmitter serotonin (causes concentration to be increased which affects the persons mood).Also snake bites block recpetors to cause .
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What are reflexes?
Involuntary responses.
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How does the reflex arc work?
A stimulus is detected by receptors and an impluse is sent along the sensory neurone to the CNS. This passes the message to a relay neurone. This then goes to the motor neurone which travels down the the effector causing a relfex.
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Why are reflexes involuntary and rapid?
Because the reflex arc doesn't process any information as impulses are always taken in the same direct route.
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How do animals rely on reflexes which help them survive?
Finding food ( sea anemones wave tentacles more when stimulated by chemcials emitted by their prey) and sheltering from predators ( mollusces close their shells when they detect a predator.
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What simple reflex does a human have to stop damage/ increase chance of survival?
Very bright light damages eye so the eye contacts making pupil smaller,pick up hot object- reflex to drop, newborn babies suckle, grasp and take steps and the knee jerk reflex.
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How can relfexes be modified by the brain?
If you picked up something hot like a plate you would normally drop it but if you dropped it you wouldn't eat, the reflex response is modified. This is due to the response being overriden by a neurone between the brain and motor neurone.
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What is conditioning?
When a stimulus causes a particular reflex response which can be learnt to produce the same reflex to a new (secondary) stimulus.
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Give an example of conditioning. (Pavlov's dogs)
Dogs salivate every time they smell food which is a simple reflex resposce to a primary stimulus. Pavlov rang a bell before giving dogs food . After a while if he rang the bell and there wasn't any food the dogs would still salivate.
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How can conditioned reflexes increase chances of survival?
If a bird eats a brightly coloured insect and it doesn't taste good or makes the bird ill it will develop the conditioned reflex to the secondary stimulus (bright insects) and avoids eating them.
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As the brain contains lots of information what does it mean it can do?
Modify behaviour as a result of experience (learn stuff) and coordinate complicated behaviour (social behaviour)
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What happens when a neurone in the brain is stimulated by a new experience?
It branches out connecting cells that were previously unconnected.
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What happens when experiences are repeated over and over again?
The pathways that the nerve impulses travel down become strengthened.
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Why is it harder to learn new things when you are older?
As after the age of 10 the pathways that aren't being used often die off .
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Why are complex animals more adaptable than simple animals?
Because of the variety of potential pathways in the brain however with simple animals (like worms and insects) have less flexible nervous systems and don't have as many pathways making their behaviour more predictable and less adaptable.
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Why do you need to learn things by a certain age?
As some pathways need to be strenghtened at a particular age e.g. the ability to communicate by language depends on a child hearing other people speak. If a child hasn't heard people talk by the age of ten they will probably never be able to talk.
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What is the cerebral cortex?
The outer part of the brain that controls things such as intelligence, memory, language and consciousness.
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How do scientists study the brain?
Studying people with brain damage (be able to tell what the damaged part of the brain does as they can't do it), electrically stimulating the brain (see what parts of the brain control what) and MRI scans (what parts of the brain are active)
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What are the two types of memory?
Short-term ( lasts for anything from a few seconds to hours- used for information that you're thinking about at the moment) and Long-term (days, months or years)
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What helps humans to remember things?
Seeing a pattern e.g. 12312 is easier than remembering 638294. Or associated with strong stimuli e.g. bright lights, colours, smells or noises. And if the information is repeated over a long time.
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What is the multi-store model for memory?
Information that you've paid attention to is temporarily stored in short-term memory. If it is repeated enough it is stored in long-term memory.Information from the long term can be retrieved and remembered if forgotten.
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Card 2


What does your nervous system consist of?


Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord), Sensory Neurones (neurones that carry impulses from receptors to CNS), Motor Neurones ( neurones that carry impuses from CNS to effectors), Effectors (all your muscles and glands)

Card 3


What is a receptor?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the two types of effectors?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Give an example of how the Central Nervous System works.


Preview of the front of card 5
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