B5d: Respiratory Systems

With today’s polluted atmosphere, many people suffer from respiratory diseases. This unit looks at how respiratory systems work and at respiratory problems, their causes and possible treatments. The experimental work on measuring lung capacities, respiration and peak flow develop the ability to present and analyse information using technical and mathematical language. 

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What four conditions and diseases of the respiratory system are there?
Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and lung cancer.
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What are the nine main parts of the respiratory system?
trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, lungs, alveoli, pleural membranes, ribs, intercostal muscles and diaphragm
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What does the trachea do?
The windpipe – it leads from the nose and mouth to the two bronchi
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What does the bronchus do?
Tube leading from the trachea to a lung
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What does the bronchioles do?
Smaller tubes inside the lungs leading from the bronchus to the alveoli
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What does the lungs do?
Contain the gas exchange surfaces
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What does the alveoli do?
Tiny air sacs at the end of bronchioles, where gas exchange happens
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What does the pleural membranes do?
Allow the lungs to move easily during ventilation
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What does the ribs do?
Provide a moveable cage to enclose and protect the lungs
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What does the intercostal muscles do?
Allow the ribcage to change in volume for ventilation to happen
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What does the diaphragm do?
Works with the intercostal muscles to allow ventilation to happen
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Explain the term breathing
Breathing or ventilation is the process that gets air into and out of the lungs
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Explain the term respiration
Respiration is the chemical process that releases energy from food in cells.
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Explain the term inspiration
Breathing in (inhalation)
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Explain the term expiration
Breathing out (exhalation)
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Describe the direction of exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen at the lungs and in tissues.
Gas exchange in the lungs happens in the alveoli. oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream from the air. carbon dioxide diffuses into the air from the bloodstream.
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Why does oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse in certain directions during gas exchange?
This happens because the concentration of oxygen in the air is higher than its concentration in the blood, and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood is higher than its concentration in the air.
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How do small simple organisms take in oxygen?
Through their moist and permeable external surfaces.
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Name two small simple organisms.
Earthworms and amoeba.
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What do larger complex organisms have to help with gas exchange?
Special organs such as gills and lungs.
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why do most living things need oxygen?
To carry out respiration which releases energy from food.
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How does surface area affect the exchange of gases?
A larger surface area increases the rate of gas exchange.
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How does an amphibian's method of gas exchange restrict them?
They need moist habitats.
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How does a fish's method of gas exchange restrict them?
Fish gills only work in water.
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Why does an amphibian's method of gas exchange restrict them?
The permeable skin of amphibians makes them susceptible to excessive water loss.
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Why does a fish's method of gas exchange restrict them?
Fish gills work by forcing water across the filaments.
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What happens during an asthma attack?
The lining of airways becomes inflamed. Fluid builds up in these airways. Muscles around bronchioles contract constricting airways.
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Explain why the respiratory system is prone to diseases.
Because microbes can't easily be flushed out
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What are the symptoms of asthma?(3)
Wheezing, a tight chest, and difficultly breathing.
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How can symptoms be treated for asthma?
Using asthma relievers,which are drugs that relax&open up the airways,making it easier to breathe.They are often administered using a device called an inhaler,which enables you to breathe the medicine in through your mouth,directly into your lungs.
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what three causes can cause lung disease?
Life style, genetic and industrial.
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Give an example of a genetic cause.
Cystic Fibrosis
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Give an example of an industrial cause.
asbestosis
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Give an example caused by lifestyle
Lung Cancer
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what is asbestosis?
inflammation and scarring limiting gas exchange
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What is Cystic Fibrosis?
too much mucus in the bronchioles
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What is Lung Cancer?
cells grow rapidly reducing surface area in lungs.
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Describe how the respiratory system protects itself. (2)
sticky mucus traps dust and pathogens before they can reach the lungs and cells with hair-like cilia waft mucus out of the lungs and into the throat.
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Explain the term tidal air.
the volume of air breathed in or out in one normal breath
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Explain the term vital air capacity.
the maximum volume of air that can be breathed out after breathing in as much as you can
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Explain the term residual air.
the volume of air left in the lungs after breathing out as hard as you can
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What is total lung capacity?
The total lung capacity is the vital capacity and residual volume added together
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Talk about inspiration.
The intercostal muscles contract, expanding the rib cage. The diaphragm contracts, pulling downwards to increase the volume of the chest. The pressure inside the chest decreases and air is pushed into the lungs.
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Talk about expiration.
The intercostal muscles relax, the ribcage drops inwards and downwards. The diaphragm relaxes, moving upwards to decrease the volume of the chest. The pressure inside the chest increases and air is pushed out of the lungs.
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How are alveoli adapted for efficient gas exchange? (5)
Large surface area, permeable, a moist surface, thin lining (one cell thick) and a good bloody supply.
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What is meant by permeable?
they let substances pass through their surface.
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Why does a moist surface help alveoli for efficient gas exchange?
the gases must be dissolved so that they can diffuse across the surface.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the nine main parts of the respiratory system?

Back

trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, lungs, alveoli, pleural membranes, ribs, intercostal muscles and diaphragm

Card 3

Front

What does the trachea do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the bronchus do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the bronchioles do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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