B5a: Skeletons

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: a2106
  • Created on: 20-05-15 19:58
What are the advantages of having an internal skeleton?
An internal skeleton: Provides a framework and shape for the body, grows with the body, easy to attach muscles to and they have joints to allow flexibility
1 of 24
What parts of the human skeleton are made from cartilage?
The human's outer ears, nose and ends of long bones
2 of 24
What type of skeletons do insects have?
Insects have external skeletons (exoskeletons) made of chitin
3 of 24
What types of skeletons do sharks have?
Sharks have an internal skeleton made only of cartilage
4 of 24
What type of skeletons do animals such as humans have?
Humans and some animals have an internal skeleton made of bone and cartilage which are living tissue. Cartilage and bone can get infected if damaged, but they can re-grow and repair themselves
5 of 24
What does a long bone contain?
Long bones have a hollow shaft. Long bones are lighter and stronger than solid bones. The head of a long bone is covered in hard, slippery cartilage to lubricate movement against other bones. The shaft contains bone marrow and blood vessels
6 of 24
What is ossification?
When cartilage is replaced by calcium and phosphorus salts during growth making the bone hard (ossified)
7 of 24
How can it be determined if a person is still growing or not?
Whether a person is still growing or not can be determined by the amount of cartilage present
8 of 24
How are fractures detected?
X-rays are used to detect fractures in bones
9 of 24
What are the 3 types of fractures?
Simple fractures: When the bone breaks cleanly Greenstick fractures: When the bone doesn't break completely Compound fracture: When the broken bone breaks through the muscle and skin
10 of 24
What is osteoporosis?
A condition in which bones are weakened, become brittle and break more easily
11 of 24
Why is it dangerous to move someone with a suspected fracture?
It can be dangerous to move someone with a suspected fracture, especially if their spine might be injured, as moving them makes it worse. Damage to the spinal cord can lead to paralysis
12 of 24
What is a joint?
A joint is where two or more bones meet
13 of 24
What is a ligament?
Ligaments join bones to other bones
14 of 24
What are tendons?
Tendons attach muscles to bones
15 of 24
What are fixed joints?
Bony plates fused together, which cannot move (e.g. in the skull)
16 of 24
What is a synovial joint?
A synovial joint allows different types of movement. It contains synovial fluid
17 of 24
What types of synovial joints are there?
Hinge joints (e.g. the elbow and knee): Bend in one direction Ball and socket joints (e.g. the shoulder the the hip) allow a range of movement
18 of 24
What is the function of cartilage?
Cartilage reduces friction between bones and absorbs shock
19 of 24
What is the function of the synovial membrane?
Secretes synovial fluid, and keeps the synovial fluid within the joint preventing leakage
20 of 24
What is the function of the synovial fluid?
Cushions and lubricates the joint during movement
21 of 24
What are antagonistic muscles?
When one muscle contracts, the other relaxes (e.g. the biceps and triceps in the arm)
22 of 24
How does the arm bend and straighten?
1. To bend the arm: The bicep contracts, pulling the radius bone. The tricep relaxes 2. To straighten the arm: The tricep contracts, pulling the ulna bone. The bicep relaxes
23 of 24
What happens when moving the arm?
Elbow joint acts as a pivot. Bicep muscle attached close to the elbow so it only contracts a short distance. Radius bone acts as a lever so the hand moves much further. Hand moves a larger distance than muscles. Larger force is exerted by muscles
24 of 24

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What parts of the human skeleton are made from cartilage?

Back

The human's outer ears, nose and ends of long bones

Card 3

Front

What type of skeletons do insects have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What types of skeletons do sharks have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of skeletons do animals such as humans have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Skeletons resources »