B5a: Skeletons

Movement is part of our daily lives. Efficient movement relies on a functioning skeletal and muscular system. Accidents do happen and bones can be broken. This item aims to provide the necessary science to understand the structure of bones and joints, and how damage can be detected, using contemporary technological developments. 

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Name an animal that has a skeleton made of hard material.
A worm.
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Name the three types of skeleton.
External, Internal and hard.
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Name an animal that has an external skeleton.
Insects.
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Name an animal that has an internal skeleton.
Humans.
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What is an insects eternal skeleton made of?
Chitin.
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Describe the different forms of internal skeleton. (2)
Made of only cartilage, and made of mainly bone and cartilage.
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Name an animal that is made of only cartilage.
Sharks.
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Name an animal that is made of mainly cartilage and bone, and give examples of body parts where these are both present. (3)
Humans, end of long bones, outer ear and nose.
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What are the three types of bone fractures?
Simple, compound and greenstick.
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The type of fracture where the broken ends of the bone stick out through the skin.
Compound.
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What is a simple fracture?
Where a bone is broken right across but stays inside the skin.
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What is a greenstick fracture?
Where a bone is bent but not broken completely.
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How do you detect a fracture?
Using an x-ray.
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What is a joint? What are they joined by?
The place where two or more bones meet. They are joined by ligaments.
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What are bones moved by? How do they attach to bones?
Muscles, joined to boned by tendons.
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Identify one fixed joint in the human body.
The skull.
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Identify two hinge joints in the human body.
Elbows and Knees.
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What are the three types of joints?
Fixed, ball and socket, and hinge.
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What type of joint is the shoulder? Can you name another one?
The ball and socket joint, and the hip.
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Name the three bones, and two muscles in the arm.
Humerus, Ulna and Radius, and Biceps and Triceps.
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What are the four advantages of having an internal skeleton?
provides framework of the body, can grow with the body, easy to attach to muscles and flexible.
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What is cartilage and bone?
Living tissue.
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Describe the structure of a long bone.(2)
A head with covering cartilage, and a shaft containing bone marrow with blood vessels.
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What are the advantages of a long, hollow bone?
The shaft in a long bone is hollow in the sense that its centre is filled with bone marrow and blood vessels, rather than with hard bone. This makes the bone strong but lightweight.
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Even though bones are strong what can cause an easy breakage?
A sharp knock.
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Why are elderly people more prone to fractures?
Their bones lose their density and strength, causing osteoporosis.
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What are the components in a synovial joint?(4)
Synovial fluid, ligaments, cartilage and synovial membrane.
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What is the range of movement in a ball and socket joint?
Allow movement in one direction.
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What joint cannot move?
Fixed joint.
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What joint can move in many directions?
Hinge joint.
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What are the biceps and triceps muscles?
Antagonistic (opposite) to bend and straighten the arm.
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How to the biceps and triceps operate?
Contraction and relaxation.
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What is bone and cartilage susceptible to? How can this be fixed?
Infection, but they can grow and repair itself.
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What minerals do bones contain?
Calcium and phosphorus.
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What happens to the cartilage in babies?
The process ossification happens. It gets replaced by calcium and phosphorus, producing bone.
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How can you tell if a person is growing?
By the amount of cartilage present.
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Why is it dangerous to move if you have a suspected fracture? Give an example.
Movement might make the fracture more serious - for example, it might turn a simple fracture into a compound fracture. Moving someone with a broken back may damage their spinal cord, leading to paralysis.
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Explain the function of synovial fluid.
Lubricates the joint.
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Explain the function of synovial membrane.
Produces synovial fluid.
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What part of a synovial joint reduces friction and absorbs shocks?
Cartilage.
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What part of a synovial joint joins the bones while allowing movement.
Ligaments.
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What does the arm act as?
A lever.
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Explain how the arm acts as a lever. (3)
The allow joint is a fulcrum/pivot, the hand moves through a larger distance than the muscles do and the muscles exert a greater force than the load on the hand.
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Describe the term fulcrum.
The pivot point in a system involving moments.
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Describe the term pivot.
A point around which rotation occurs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the three types of skeleton.

Back

External, Internal and hard.

Card 3

Front

Name an animal that has an external skeleton.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name an animal that has an internal skeleton.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an insects eternal skeleton made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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