B5 The living body.

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What is an endoskeleton?
An internal skeleton made from bone and/or cartilage.
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Examples of animals with an endoskeleton?
Humans, frogs, sharks.
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What is an exoskeleton?
An external skeleton usually made from chitin.
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What are the disadvantages of having an exoskeleton?
It is heavy, inflexible and does not grow with the animal so it has to molt/shed it's skin.
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Examples of animals with an exoskeleton?
Insects, arachnids.
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What are the advantages of an endoskeleton?
Provides structure and protection, allows flexibility and grows with the body.
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What happens to a foetus' bones during growth?
They change from a soft, flexible cartilage to hard bones because the flexible is replaced by calcium and phosphorus salts.
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What is ossification?
The process of cartilage becoming hard bone.
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Why do children have more cartilage than adults?
They are still growing and going through the ossification process.
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What is a simple fracture?
A complete, clean break.
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What is a greenstick fracture?
When the bone doesn't break completely.
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What is a compound fracture?
When the bone goes through the muscle and the skin.
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What is a joint?
Where two bones meet.
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What is a ligament?
Something that connects bones to other bones.
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What do tendons do?
Connect bones to muscles.
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What is a fixed joint?
A joint where bones are fused together.
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What is a synovial joint?
A joint where bones are not fused together.
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What is a ball and socket joint?
A joint that can rotate, e.g a shoulder joint.
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What is a hinge joint?
A joint that only bends in one direction, e.g knee.
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What are antagonistic muscles?
Muscles that work together by contracting and relaxing to produce movement.
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What are the advantages of replacement joints?
Gives people their mobility, can be tailor made, can replace worn joints, never rejected by the immune system.
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What are the disadvantages of replacement joints?
Risks of major surgery, artificial joints cannot repair diseased/weakened bones.
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Do single celled organisms need a circulatory system and why?
No, they can rely on diffusion to supply nutrients and oxygen.
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Do insects have an open/closed circulatory system? Why?
Open, blood fills up inside the body cavity and instead, have special tubes to deliver oxygen to respiring cells.
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What is the function of an artery and how are they adapted to suit their function?
They carry blood away from the heart, they stretch and contract to accommodate the high pressure.
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What is the function of a vein and how are they adapted to suit their function?
They carry blood back to the hear and have valves to prevent backflow because of the low pressure and they have a wide lumen.
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What is the function of a capillary and how are they adapted to suit their function?
They exchange substances and have semi-permeable walls and a thin membrane.
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How many chambers are in the heart of a single circulatory system?
Two(one atrium and one ventricle).
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How many chambers are in the heart of a double circulatory system?
Four(two atria and two ventricles)
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What are the advantages of a double circulatory system?
Blood can be pumped at a higher pressure so cells get glucose and oxygen faster. Also, oxygenated and deoxygenated blood can be separated.
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List the 7 stages of the cardiac cycle.
1. Blood moves into the heart. 2.The ventricles contract. 3. Blood enters the pulmonary artery and aorta. 4. Blood moves through the B and T valves. 5. Then moves through the semilunar valves. 6. The atria contract. 7. Blood flows around the body.
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How can you monitor the heart?
Using an electrocardiogram or an echocardiogram.
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What does an electrocardiogram do?
Records nerve impulses in the heart.
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What does an echocardiogram do?
Uses ultrasound to produce pictures of a working heart.
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What happens when a blood vessel is damaged?
Platelets are exposed to air causing fibrin fibres to mesh, clotting the blood.
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Why is blood clotting important?
Prevents excess blood loss and stops pathogens from entering the blood stream.
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What is ventilation?
The process whereby air or water passes into or over a respiratory surface such as lungs or gills.
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What is inspiration?
The movement of air into the lungs.
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What is expiration?
The movement of air out of the lungs.
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What is respiration?
The release of energy from glucose and oxygen.
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What is tidal volume?
The volume of air breathed in or out in a normal breath.
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What is vital capacity?
The maximum volume of air which can be used for gas exchange in the lungs.
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What is residual air?
The volume of air that stays in the lungs even at the end of a maximum breath out.
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How can you measure lung capacity?
Using a spirometer.
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Starting with the mouth, explain the path of food during digestion.
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, ****.
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What is egestion?
Getting rid of solid waste(undigested foods)
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What is excretion?
Getting rid of waste through bodily processes, e.g sweating, urine.
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Why does blood pressure vary in the arteries?
Because pressure is high when heart contracts and is low when heart relaxes.
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What happens during fertilisation?
The nucei of egg and sperm cells fuse together. The haploid cells become diploid cells.
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What age is a women fertile?
Approximately from the age of 13 to 50.
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What does FSH do and where is it produced?
It promotes and stimulates growth and maturity of an egg in the ovaries, produced in the pituitary gland.
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What does oestrogen do and where is it released?
It stops the pituitary glad producing FSH and causes the lining of the uterus to thicken and the production of LH, released in the ovaries.
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What does LH do and where is it produced?
Causes the egg follicle to be released (ovulation), LH is produced in the pituitary gland.
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What does progesterone do and where is it produced?
Maintains uterus lining and stops the production of LH and is produced in the ovaries.
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What is infertility?
The inability of a couple to get pregnant.
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Name the different treatments for infertility.
IVF, fertility drugs(FSH), ovary transplant, surrogacy, donors, artificial insemination.
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What are the two foetal treatments?
Ultrasound - detect the sex, can check for early signs of defects. Amniocentesis - tests cells in the amniotic fluid which surrounds the foetus, can detect abnormalities.
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How can you control fertility?
Using A contraceptive pill, which contain hormones that inhibit FSH production so no egg is released.
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What are the 5 stages of human growth?
Infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age.
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What 4 things can affect the rate of growth?
Diet, exercise, illness/disease/growth hormone production.
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What is dwarfism?
The lack of growth hormone.
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What is giantism?
The production of too much growth hormone.
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What is differential growth?
When different parts of the body, grow at different speeds.
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Why has life expectancy increased?
Better technology/medicine/lifestyle/living conditions/sanitation and fewer industrial diseases.
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Why might organs need replacing?
They become damaged/diseased/traumatized.
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Where do organs for donation come from?
Dead or living donors.
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What is a donor?
Someone who gives up organs to help others.
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What is a recipient?
Somebody receiving an organ.
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What are the terms of organ donation?
It is an opt-in system where you must sign up to donate organs.
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Card 2

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Examples of animals with an endoskeleton?

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Humans, frogs, sharks.

Card 3

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What is an exoskeleton?

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Card 4

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What are the disadvantages of having an exoskeleton?

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Card 5

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Examples of animals with an exoskeleton?

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