B5 Flashcards

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List 3 advantages of having an internal skeleton over an external skeleton.
1. It can easily grow with the body. 2. It is easy to attach muscles to it. 3. It gives the body more support and provides framework.
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What happens to the lower arm when the triceps contracts?
The lower arm is pulled down, this straightens the arm.
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What sort of circulatory do Humans have and how is it different to the circulatory system of a Fish?
Humans have a double circulartory system but Fish have a single circulartory system.
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Describe the events in the cardiac cycle.
1. Blood flows into the atria. 2. The atria contract, pushing the blood into the ventricles. The ventricales contract forcing the blood into the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
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What are the 3 contributions that Harvey made to our understanding of the circulartory system?
1. He found that valves stopped the back flow of blood. 2. That the heart is a pump. 3. That the pulse is caused by the heart pumping blood into the arteries.
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What are the two clusters of pacemaker cells in the heart called and what do they do?
The sino-atrial node (SAN) stimulates the atria to contact. The atrio-ventricular node (AVN) stimulates the ventricles to contract.
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What does ECG stand for and what does a healthy persons ECG look like.
Electrocardiogram and a healthy ECG has a small peak followed by a large peak, and finally another small peak to finish. This is one heartbeat.
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What exactly is happening when blood clots?
A clot is formed when a mesh of protein fibres covers the area then platelets and red blood cells go to the area and harden to form a clot.
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To be a living donor you must meet 4 criteria, what are they?
1. The person has to be fit and healthy. 2. Must be a similar body weight. 3. A close tissue match to the patient. 4. They must be over 18.
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What are the ethical problems with organ transplants?
1. Religious reasons.2. The doctors might not save them if their organs are needed for transplant. 3. People are worried that others may be pressured into becoming a living donor.
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Describe what happens to the pressure and volume in the lungs as you breath in and out.
Inspiration - the intercostal muscles contracts increasing the volume and decreasing the pressure. Expriration- the muscles relax decreasing the volume and increasing the pressure.
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What machine would a doctor use to measure lung capacity?
They would use a Spirometer.
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Describe how gaseous exchange occurs in human aveoli.
Oxygen diffusses out of the aveolus and into the blood. Then the Carbon Dioxide diffues out of the blood and into the aveolus.
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What are the 4 main causes of lung disease?
Indistrial Materials, Genetic Causes, Lifestyle Causes and Asthma.
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What are the 2 functions of physical digestion?
To allow food to pass easilythrough the digestive system and to provide a larger surface area for chemical digestion.
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What are the 3 digestive enzymes and what do they break down?
1. Carbohydrates break down starch in sugars. 2. Proteases break down proteins into amino acids. 3. Lipases break down fats into glycerol.
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How are Villi adapted for digestion?
They have a permeable layer, a good blood supply and microvilli.
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How does a Kidney work?
1. Ultrafiltration-high pressure to clean blood. Reabsorbtion- all needed minerals are reabsorbed and they the release of waters occurs.
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How does a dialysis machine wotrk and what does it remove?
It works be acting as an artifial kidney and it removes urea.
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What hormones control the menstual cycle?
FSH-causes an egg to develop, Oestrogen-repairs the uterus lining, LH-releases the egg. Progesterone-maintains uterus lining.
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Why are people living longer and what problems will this cause?
People are living longer because healthcare is better, this could cause overcrowding.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens to the lower arm when the triceps contracts?

Back

The lower arm is pulled down, this straightens the arm.

Card 3

Front

What sort of circulatory do Humans have and how is it different to the circulatory system of a Fish?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the events in the cardiac cycle.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 3 contributions that Harvey made to our understanding of the circulartory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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