B5 Definitions

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Specialised Cells
Cells that are adapted to do a particular job
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Zygote
The cell made when a spem cell fertilizes an egg cell in sexual reproduction
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Stem Cells
Unspecialised animal cell that can divide and develop into specialised cells
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Meristem Cells
Unspecialised plant cell that can divide and develop into specialised cells
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Xylem
Plant tissues that transports water through a plant
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Phloem
A plant tissue that transports sugar throughout a plant
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Clone
A new cell or individual made by asexual reproduction. A clone has the same genes as it's parents
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Fetus
A developing baby
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Cuttings
A shoot or leaf taken from a plant to be grown into a new plant
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Auxin
A plant hormone that affects plant growth and development. For example this hormone stimulates growth of roots in cuttings
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Rooting Powder
A product used in gardening containing plant hormones. It encourages cuttings to grow roots
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Phototropism
The bending of growing plant shoots towards the light
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Therapeutic Cloning
Growing new tissues and organs from cloning embryonic stem cells. The new tissues and organs are used to treat people who are ill or injured
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Tissues
A group of specialised cells of the same type working together to do a particular job
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Organs
Part of an animal or plant made up of different tissues
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Chromosomes
Long thin threadlike structures in the nucleus of the cell made from a molecule of DNA. They carry genes
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Genes
A section of DNA giving instruction for a cell about how to make one kind of protein
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Nucleus
Central structure in a cell containing genetic material. It controls the function and characteristics of the cell
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Organelles
The specialised parts of a cell such as the nucleus and mitochondria. Chloroplasts are organelles that are only found in plant cells
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Mitosis
Cell division that makes two new cells identical to each other and to the parent cell
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Meiosis
Cell devision that halves the number of chromosomes to produce gametes. The four new cells are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell
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Ribosomes
An organelle in a cell where proteins are built
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Mitochondria
An organelle where respiration takes place and where energy is made
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Gametes
Sex cells that fuse together to form a zygote (sperm and egg)
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Genetic Variation
Differences between individuals caused by differences in DNA
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Double Helix
The shape of a DNA molecule
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Base Pairing
The bases in a DNA molecule (A, C, G, T) always bond in the same way. A & T and C & G
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Amino Acids
The small molecules that are joined in long chains to make proteins
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Proteins
Chemicals in living things made up of amino acids
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Daughter Cells
The name of cells after cell division
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Haploid
A nucleus with half the amount of DNA
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Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction involving one parent
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Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction involving two parents
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The cell made when a spem cell fertilizes an egg cell in sexual reproduction

Back

Zygote

Card 3

Front

Unspecialised animal cell that can divide and develop into specialised cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Unspecialised plant cell that can divide and develop into specialised cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Plant tissues that transports water through a plant

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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