B4: Its a green world

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  • Created by: Theex
  • Created on: 06-05-14 16:44
Define: Population
All of the organisms of one species in a habitat
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Define: Community
Populations of different species in a habitat
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What are 2 methods of estimating population size?
Scaling up from a small sample OR capture - recapture
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What is the equation for estimate population size when doing capture-recapture?
Population size (estimate) = (# in 1st sample * # in 2nd sample) / # in 2nd sample previously marked
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What three things must be assumed when using capture-recapture?
No change due to death and migration between samples, method of capture were identical, markings didn't affect survival chances
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Define: Ecosystems
Self supporting area where all organisms live this also includes abiotic conditions
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Define: Zonation
The gradual change in the distribution of species across habitat due to a variation in abiotic conditions
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Define: Biodiversity
A measure of the variety of life in an area
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What 3 things are a measure of biodiversity?
Variation between individuals of the same species, number of different species, number of different habitats
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What is the symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO(2) + 6H(2)O --> C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2)
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What happens in the two stages of photosynthesis?
1. Light energy breaks down H(2)O into hydrogen and oxygen 2. CO(2) combines with hydrogen to make glucose (and water)
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How was the 0(2) produced in photosynthesis proven to come from H(2)O?
Using the isotope of O - 18 in water so it could be tracked
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What are the 3 limiting factors of photosynthesis?
Light intensity, CO(2) concentration and temperature
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What are 5 uses of glucose?
Cell walls - converted to cellulose, stored as starch, respiration, stored in seed - glucose --> lipids, making proteins - glucose + nitrates --> amino acids
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What 2 things make starch a good way to store glucose?
Doesn't dissolve and move away, doesn't affect water concentration so has no impact upon osmosis
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Define: Diffusion
The net movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
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What 3 factors impact upon rate of diffusion?
Distance, concentration gradient and surface area - the larger the gradient the better
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During the day which gas diffuses in and which gas diffuses out?
CO(2) in as it is used up in photosynthesis and O(2) diffuses out as it is being made
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During the night which gas diffuses in and which gas diffuses out?
O(2) is being used for respiration while CO(2) is being made so the reverse happens
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What are 5 adaptations to leaves for diffusion?
Broad - large SA, thin, stomota, guard cells, air space in mesophyll layer - increases SA : V
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What are 5 adaptations to leaves for absorbing light?
Broad - increased SA exposed to light, lots of chloroplast, different pigments absorb different wavelengths, more chloroplast in palisade layer, upper epidermis is transparent
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Define: Osmosis
The net movement of water particles across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration
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What word is used to describe a plant cell full of water?
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When a plant cell lacks water it is?
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When experiencing extreme drought a plant cell can become?
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What keeps the plant cells shape?
The inelastic cell wall
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What happens to an animal cell when it takes in too much water?
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What happens to an animal cell when it has too little water?
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Describe: Phloem
It's made up of living cells with perforated end plates, it transports food up and down the plant - this process is called translocation
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Describe: Xylem
It's constructed of dead cells placed end to end with no end walls and a lumen, the cell walls are thick to support the plant. They transport water and nutrients up in the transpiration stream.
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Briefly describe transpiration
When water evaporates/diffuses out of leaves it creates a water shortage, this leads to water being drawn up the xylem vessel, which leads to loss of water in the roots so water is drawn in via osmosis thus creating a constant transpiration stream
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What are 4 benefits of a constant transpiration stream?
Keeps plant cool, constant supply of water for photosynthesis, tugor pressure - helps to support the plant, minerals are brought up within the water
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What are 4 ways to increase rate of transpiration?
Increase light intensity, increase temperature, increase air movement, decrease in humidity
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What are 2 ways plants balance water intake and loss?
Waterproof waxy cuticle, stomata close when flaccid
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What is active transport?
Going against the concentration gradient it requires energy. Plants use it to bring in minerals
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What 3 nutrients do plants need for healthy growth?
Nitrates, phosphate and potassium (review revision guide for what they're used for)
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What 3 things affect rate of decomposition?
Temperature, amount of water and amount oxygen
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How do detritivores feed?
Feed on detritus breaking it down to increase SA
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How do Saprophytes feed?
Extracellular digestion - they secrete digestive enzymes so that the detritus is broken down until its small enough to be asbsorbed
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What are 6 methods of food preservation?
Canning, cooling, freezing, drying, adding salt/sugar, adding vinegar
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Define: Intensive farming
Trying to produce as much food as possible by minimising energy loss in the food chain
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What are three ways of achieving intensive farming?
Herbicides, pesticides and battery farming
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What are 2 advantages of hydroponics?
mineral levels can be controlled and diseases can be easily controlled
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What are 2 disadvantages of hydroponics?
Lots of fertilisers and no soil for plants to anchor
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What 4 downsides to battery farming?
Removal of hedges - soil erosion and destruction of habitats, fertilisers pollute water, pesticides disturb food chains, its cruel
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Define: Biological control
Using living organisms to control a pest
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What are 2 advantages of biological control?
Less pollution and risk to food chain, there is no need to repeat treatment
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What are 4 disadvantages of biological control?
Might not eat pest, might eat useful organisms, population may become out of control and might not stay
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What issues do pesticides and biological control share?
They both damage food chains by either causing a lack of prey or leading to a population boom in the pest's prey
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What are 5 parts to organic farming?
Organic fertilisers, crop rotation, weeding, varying planting time, biological control
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What are 3 advantages of organic farming?
Less chemicals involved, better for the environment, ethical treatment of animals
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What are 3 disadvantages of organic farming?
Takes up more space, labour intensive and can't grow as much
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define: Community


Populations of different species in a habitat

Card 3


What are 2 methods of estimating population size?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the equation for estimate population size when doing capture-recapture?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What three things must be assumed when using capture-recapture?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Bushra Patel


This is a really good set, thanks :)

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