B4, B5, B6 Triple Science Higher

Some cue cards for gcse higher triple biology. Exam boarrd OCR Gateway. B4, B5, B6

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  • Created on: 03-06-13 15:02
What is a population?
All the organisms from one species in a habitat
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What is a community?
Populations of different species in a habitat
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What are the 4 stages to capture and recapture?
1) Capture a sample of the population and mark them in a harmless way. 2) Release them back into the environment. 3) Recapture another sample of the population and count how many of this sample are marked. 4) Estimate population size
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What is the equation for estimating population size having used capture and recapture?
(number in the first sample x number in second sample) / number in second sample that were already marked
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How does sample size affect the accuracy of the estimate?
The bigger the sample the more accurate the estimate
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What assumptions have to be made with capture and recapture?
No changes in the population size in between samples (deaths, immigration, emmigration), the sampling methods used each time were identical, the marking hasn't affected the organisms chances of survival.
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What is an abiotic factor?
Non living conditions such as temperature, salinity and soil quality.
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What is an ecosystem?
All the organisms living in a particular area and all the abiotic factors
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what is a habitat?
An area where an organism lives.
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How can you investigate distribution?
Using transects
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How can you plot the results of a transect?
A kite diagram
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Why do abiotic factors affect where an organism lives?
Because they're adapted to live in certain conditions and that's the only place they can survive and reproduce
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What is Zonation?
Zonation is the gradual change in the distribution of species across a habitat
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Name 2 things which could affect zonation
Soil depth, salinity of the conditions
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What is biodiversity?
A measure of the variety of life in an area
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Why are areas with a high biodiversity healthier?
Because they have more variety (among organisms of the same species and more separate species) they are better able to cope with change
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What is the photosynthesis symbol equation?
6CO2 + 6H20 = C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Where does photosynthesis take place?
In chloroplasts (often in the palisade mesophyl layer of the plant). Chloroplasts contain pigments like chlorophyll which absorb light energy.
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What happens in the first stage of photosynthesis?
Light energy is used to split water into oxygen gas and hydrogen ions.
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What happens in the second stage of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide combines with hydrogen ions to make glucose and water.
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Why isn't water an overall product for photosynthesis?
Because more us used at the beginning when it's split into oxygen and hydrogen than at the end where more is made.
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How is glucose used to make cell walls?
It's converted into cellulose (this happens especially in rapidly growing plants)
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What is glucose turned into when it's stored in seeds?
Lipids (fats and oils)
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Where is glucose kept when it's turned into starch?
roots, stems and leaves
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why do plants need starch?
For when photosynthesis isn't happening, such as at night
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How is glucose used for making proteins?
It's combined with nitrates to make amino acids and then proteins.
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Why is starch good for storing?
It's insoluble, so can't move away from storage areas, it doesn't affect the water concentration inside the cells so they don't get bloated from drawing in water.
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What did greek scientists say about plant growth?
That plants must grow and gain mass by taking in nutrients from the soil.
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What did Van Helmont say?
That plants gain mass from taking in water.
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Why was this experiment important even though it's conclusion (that plants gain their mass from water) was wrong?
Introduced the idea that plants don't just gain mass from soil.
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What did Priestley's experiment show about plants?
That they produce oxygen
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How do we know whether the oxygen for photosynthesis comes from carbon dioxide or water?
An experiment involving an isotope of oxygen that was placed in the water but not the CO2
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What are the three limiting factors for photosynthesis?
Light, Temperature, Carbon Dioxide
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Why is temperature a limiting factor?
The plants enzymes which control photosynthesis need to be at the optimum temperature
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the net mo vement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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What do cell membranes allow through?
simple sugars, water and ions
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How are leaves adapted for diffusion?
Thin - allowing gasses to diffuse across easily, large surface area, stomata allow gas exchange to take place, air spaces in the spongy mesophyll layer allowing the gas to move between the photosynthesizing cells and the stomata
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What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the net movement of water particles through a partially permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
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What happens if an animal cell takes in too much water?
Lysis - it bursts
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What happens if an animal cell loses too much water?
Crenation - it becomes shriveled up
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What is the phloem made of?
columns of living cells with perforated end plates
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What does the phloem transport?
Food substances such as sugars
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What is the movement of food substances through a plant known as?
Translocation
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What does the Xylem do?
Moves water and nutrients from the roots UP the plant
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What is the xylem made of?
Dead cells joined end to end,n with no end walls and a hole (lumen) down the middle
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Why is transpiration good?
It keeps the plant cool, provides the plant with water for photosynthesis, creates turgor pressure, plant can have minerals
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Why do plants need nitrates?
For making amino acids and proteins which are needed for growth and repair.
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What happens if a plant doesn't have enough nitrates?
Poor growth and yellow older leaves
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Why do plants need phosphates?
For respiration and growth, contains phosphorous which is needed for making DNA and cell membranes
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What happens if a plant doesn't have enough phosphates?
It will have discoloured older leaves and poor root growth
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Why do plants need potassium?
To help the enzymes needed for photosynthesis and respiration
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What happens if plants don't have enough potassium?
poor flower and root growth, discoloured leaves
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Why do plants need magnesium?
For making chlorophyll which is needed for photosynthesis.
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What happens to plants without magnesium?
Yellow leaves
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What three things affect the rate of decomposition?
Temperature, amount of water, amount of oxygen
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What do detritivores feed on?
Dead and decaying material
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What are some examples of detritivores?
earthworms, maggots, woodlice
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What do the detritivores achieve?
A larger surface area for smaller decomposers to work on speeding up decay
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What are saprophytes?
Decomposers which decompose using extracellular digestion
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What is extracellular digestion?
feeding by excreting digestive enzymes onto the material that they want to break down. The enzymes break down the cell which can them be absorbed by the saprophyte
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What type of organism are most saprophytes?
fungi
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How does adding salt or sugar slow down the process of decomposition?
The salt or sugar draws water out of the decomposer by osmosis meaning that they can't work properly.
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What three things might an intensive farmer use to reduce energy loss?
Using herbicides, using pesticides, battery farming
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What is hydroponics?
Growing plants without soil in a nutrient solution
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What are the advantages of hydroponics?
Mineral levels can be accurately controlled, diseases can be controlled more effectively.
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What are the disadvantages of hydroponics?
Lots of fertilisers need to be added, the plants have no soil to anchor their roots and support the plant
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In what ways is intensive farming bad for the environment?
Removal of hedges destroy habitats for wild creatures and can lead to soil erosion, eutrophication could happen
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What is biological control?
using living things instead of pesticides to control a pest
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What are two advantages of biological control?
no chemicals are used so there's less pollution, , there's no need to keep repeating the treatment
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What are four disadvantages of biological control?
The predator might not eat the pest, it might eat useful species, it's population might increase and get out of control, it might not stop in the area where it's needed.
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what are some organic farming methods?
organic fertilizers (animal manure and compost), crop rotation, weeding, varying seed planting times, biological contro
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What sre the advantages of organic farming?
fewer chemicals, better for the environment, no battery farming
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what are the disadvantages of biological control?
more space needed, labour intensive, not as much food can be grown
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What is the job of the skeleton?
support the body and to allow it to move
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What are the advantages of an internal skeleton?
it can easily grow with the body, it's easy to attach muscles to it, it's more flexible than an external skeleton, it gives the body support and provides a framework
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What is the advantage of hollow bones?
They're lighter which makes movement more efficient
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How does ossification happen?
Phosphates and calcium deposit minerals at the end of the cartilage and these harden into bone
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why do you have cartilage on the end of bones?
to stop the bones from rubbing and it acts as a shock absorber
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What are bones at a synovial joint held together by?
ligaments
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What does the synovial membrane do?
releases synovial fluid to lubricate the joint
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How are bones attached to muscles?
tendons
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What are pairs of muscles called?
Antagonistic pairs
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What happens when the bicep contracts?
the lower arm is pulled upwards.
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What are unborn babies born with?
a 'hole in the heart'
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What does a 'hole in the heart' do?
Allows oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to mix meaning less oxygen is transported around the body
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How can you correct a 'hole in the heart'?
Sometimes surgery is needed
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How can valves in the heart be weakened?
old age, heart attacks, infection
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What is the effect of heart valve damage?
the blood can't circulate as normal
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How can you fix damaged heart valves?
with an artificial valve
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What is coronary heart disease?
when the coronary artery supplying the heart with blood gets blocked with fatty ddeposits
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How can coronary heart disease be treated?
coronary bypass operation
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What are three ways you can have heart problems fixed?
heart transplant, artificial valves or pacemakers, a heart assist device (which buys time)
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What is a clot?
A mesh of protein fibres called fibrin. They are formed by chemical reactions in your platelets
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Which blood groups can people with blood type A receive blood from?
O, A
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What must an organ donor be?
Relatively young, a similar body weight to the person receiving the organ, a close tissue match
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What do doctors use to try and prevent rejection?
Immuno suppresive drugs
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What mechanical replacements for organs are available?
heart-lung machines, dialysis machines, ventiators
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What are the main problems with mechanical replacements for organs?
they need a constant power supply often, they're often very big, they can cause allergic reactions, they have to be made out of materials that won't harm the body or degrade
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What muscles contract when we breathe in?
intercostal muscles and diaphragm
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What happens to the pressure inside the lungs when we breathe in?
it decreases
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What happens to the thorax when you breathe out?
volume decreases
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What is your total lung capacity?
the total volume of air you can fit into your lungs?
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What is your tidal air?
the amount you breathe in when you breathe normally
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What is residual air?
the air left in your lungs when you breathe out as much as you can
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what is vital lung capacity?
the amount of air that you can use in your lungs. ie. total lung capacity - residual air
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How do alveoli work?
gases diffuse in and out of them
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how are alveolus adapted for efficient gas exchange?
thin wall, permeable membrane, moist, big surface area, a good blood supply
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How are amphibians adapted for gas exchange?
oxygen moves in and carbon dioxide moves out through their permeable skin - this means their skin has to be very moist
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How do fish exchange gases?
a constant supply of oxygen rich water flows through the open mouth of the fish and is then forced through the gill filaments, the water keeps the gills open
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Where is bile made?
liver
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where is bile stored?
gall bladder
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What does bile do?
it helps with fat digestion by breaking the fat down into tiny droplets (emulsification) which give it a larger surface area making it easier for lipase to break it down.
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Fat can't diffuse into the blood stream. How does it get into it?
it diffuses out of the gut and into a fluid called lymph, in the lymphatic system which is then emptied into the blood.
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How is the small intestine adapted for diffusion?
Large surface area made by villie and micro villie, they have a single permeable layer of surface cells, good blood supply
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What is the kidneys' three main roles?
removal or urea, adjustment of salt levels, adjustment of water levels.
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How much sugar is reabsorbed by the kidney?
all of it
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how much salt is reabsorbed by the kidney?
sufficient salt
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what are not removed from the kidney under high pressure?
proteins and blood cells
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what hormone controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys?
ADH - Anti diuretic horrmone
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What process makes the kidney reabsorb water?
negative feedback
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Why does a dialysis machine have the same concentration of sodium and glucose as the blood?
so these things aren't removed.
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What happens on the first day of the menstrual cycle?
the uterus lining breaks down. this lasts about 4 days
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what happens in the second stage of menstrual cycle?
The uterus lining starts to thicken and grow - this lasts from day 4-14. So that it's ready to receive a fertilised egg
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What happens at stage three of menstrual cycle?
An egg is released - at day 14, this is called ovulation
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what happens in the 4th stage of the menstrual cycle?
The lining is maintained for 14 days and then starts to break down again if it hasn't received a fertilised egg;
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Where is the hormone FSH produced?
In the pituitary gland
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what does FSH do?
causes an egg to develop and stimulates the release of oestrogen
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Where is the hormone oestrogen produced?
in the ovaries
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What does oestrogen do?
causes the lining of the uterus to thicken and grow, stimulates the release of LH, prohibits the release of FSH
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Where is the hormone LH produced?
In the pituitary gland
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What does LH do?
It causes an egg to be released, it stimulates the release of progesterone
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Where is the hormone Progesterone produced?
The ovaries
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What does progesterone do?
inhibits the release of LH, maintains the lining of the uterus
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what happens when a person has asbestosis?
scarring and inflammation which limits gas exchange
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what happens when a person has an asthma attack?
the muscles around the bronchioles contract constricting the airways the lining becomes inflamed and fluid builds up making it difficult to breathe
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What happens in the first stage of the cardiac cycle?
blood flows into the atria
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what happens in the second stage of the cardiac cycle?
the atria contract and blood flows into the ventricles
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what happens in the third stage of the cardiac cycle?
the ventricles contract forcing the blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta
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What node causes the atria to contract?
SAN - sino atrial node
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what node causes the ventricles to contract?
AVN - atrio ventricular node
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what three things can an echocardiogram show?
an enlarged heart, problems with valves, decreased pumping ability
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What 4 ways are there of increasing fertility?
FSH injections, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, ovary transplant
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what 4 shapes do bacteria come in?
sphere, spiral, rod, curved rod
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How do bacteria reproduce?
binary fission
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What do you culture bacteria on?
an agar plate
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what does aseptic technique involve?
wearing gloves, long hair tied back, sterilising everything properly, disposing of it properly - pressure sterilising in an autoclave
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how do viruses reproduce?
they inject their genetic material into a host cell and use the host cell to make the components of a new virus they reproduce and eventually it splits open
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what disease can you get from water?
cholera
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what are the four stages to an infectious disease?
the microorganism enters the body - nose mouth etc. The microorganism reproduces rapidly, the microorganism produces toxins which damage cells and tissues, the toxins cause symptoms so does the immune system (fever)
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What are antiseptics and antibiotics?
chemicals that destroy bacteria
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where do antiseptics work?
outside the body
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what did louis pasteur discover?
He discovered the germ theory of disease
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what did joseph lister discover?
antiseptics - he used carbolic acid
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what did alexander flemming discover?
penicillin
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what is the equation for bacteria anaerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
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what temperature is alcohol heated to when it's pasteurrised?
78
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What is biogas usually made up of?
70% methane, 30% carbon dioxide, often contains things like hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide
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what can biogas be used for?
generating electricity, heating central heating systems, as a fuel in cars and buses
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why is ethanol better than petrol or diesel?
because it produces fewer pollutants, and is a renewable resource
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How do you test for the amount of humus in soil?
heat it to 550c for 2 days and compare the weight from before you heated it and after
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How does humus help to support life?
it increases the air content, as it's broken down minerals and nutrients are released into the soil
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Name three detritivores?
eathworm, millipede, springtail
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what are the advantages of living in water?
no chance of dehydration, waste disposal is easier, it offers support for things with no skeleton, little change in temperature
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what are the disadvantages of living in water?
water is more resistant that air, organisms need to be able to control their water content effectively.
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when is there usually an algal bloom?
late spring to late summer
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what can happen if fertilisers are dumped?
eutrophication
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what can happen if pesticides are dumped?
the levels can build up across the food chain and kill big animals
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what is the enzyme used to break down carbohydrates?
amylase
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what do lipids break down into?
Glycerol and fatty acids
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what chemical used to be used to test for diabetes and what happened?
benedict's solution, it turned from blue to orange
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what is the enzyme used to start the clotting process in cheese?
rennet
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what enzyme is used to get juice out of fruit?
pectinase
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how do you make alginate beads?
mix alginate with the enzyme and then add drop by drop to calcium chloride solution
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why are immobilised enzymes good?
because they don't contaminate the product
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what enzyme is used for cutting out dna?
restriction enzymes
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what enzymes are used for joining DNA?
ligase
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what are organisms that contain the DNA of something else called?
transgenic organisms
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what is the process which separates out bits of DNA called?
electrophoresis
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what is the DNA 'tagged' with so that you can see it?
a radioactive probe
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a community?

Back

Populations of different species in a habitat

Card 3

Front

What are the 4 stages to capture and recapture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the equation for estimating population size having used capture and recapture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does sample size affect the accuracy of the estimate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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