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  • Created by: Aine
  • Created on: 04-06-13 19:21
What problems do biologgists meet when investigating where organisms live?
there are many different organisms and they seem to live all over the place.
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how do biologists overcome the problems when having to make sense of huge amounts of date?
they have devised a series of techniques to collect information about two things.
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what are the 2 things?
the location of the organisms in one species this describes thir distrubution AND the number or organismd\s n a particular species in an atrea, populatin.
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what techniques do biologists need to collect information about organisms
they need to collect organisms, count the number in each species collect accurate and fair data.
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what is the technique called sampling?
counting a small number of the total population and working out a total from that sample.
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say 2 sampling techniques?
quadrats, square frames of a standard area. put on the ground to define the area. AND nets can be used to catch animals such as butterflies.
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what are pooters?
containers with a straw device, used to suc in small animals.
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what are pitfalls?
small containers buried in the ground which collect small animals.
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what happens in the technique called capture recapture?
capture a sample of organisms in an area, count, mark and release. recapture and count a second sample in the same area at a later date. count the total number of recaptured organisms in the second.
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what is the population size estimate equation?
number in first samplex number in second sample OVER number in second sample previously marked.
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what are the 3 things needed for sampling accuracy?
a big enough sample, being reliable, being fai.
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what do biologists assume when using capture recapture data?
that no death, immigration or emigration has occured within the population.
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what is meant by the term- an ecosystem is self sufficient?
it needs nothing supplied to it apart from energy fom the sun.
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2 reasons why organisms on a beach are not randomly placed?
the effect on physical features and on other organisms.
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what is zoneation?
where different species live in different zones of a habbitat.
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what are artificial ecosystems?
ones created by humans, such as fish farms, gardens.they have a lower biodiversity, humans remove unwanted species.
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what do plants do to make their own food?
they take in carbon dioxide from the air through pores called stomata. and water from the soil through root hairs.
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what is chlorophyll?
what plants use to trap the suns energy and use it to build up the carbon dioxide and water into cabohydrates and oxygen. PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
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What 2 stages does photosynthesis occur in?
one with light energy to split water into waste oxygen and gas and hydrogen ions. second can occur day or night and combines the hydrogen ions with carbon to form glucose and some water that is used up during photosynhesis.
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what 2 things does the plants make in photosynthesis and how?
food- this is glucose, a carb. and oxygen waste gas produced in photosynthesis
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what is the food make in photosynthesis used for?
some used for respiration in the plants cells and some is stoed in the plant.
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what is oxygen used for in photosynthesis?
respiration in the plants cells and rest is riven off through the stomata into the surroundings.
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what can glucose in plants be converted into?
make sugar sacrose, found in sugar cane. it can be changed into starch and stored until needed.
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what cn stored glucose in plants be used for
respiration at night, because there is no sunlight and the plants is not making glucose through photosynthesis.
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why is sucrose good for transport?
because it dissolves in water and flows easily
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what does the plants convert sugars into?
substances such as cellulose, protens and fats which it needs to grow and for other functions.
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what are 2 advantages of glucose being stored in plants as starch?
starch can be converted back into glucose for respiration, it does not effect the water concentration inside the cells.
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why do plants respire?
because it releases energy needed by the plant to grow and survive. it effects the movement of gases into and out of the leaf.
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what 3 things will speed up photosynthesis?
more carbon dioxide, more light and a warm temperature.
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what factors can limit the rate of photosynthesis?
availability to light because it drives photosynhesis. Amount of carbon dioxide. A sustainablet temperature- they effect how quickly enzymes work.
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what is a limiting factor?
when a process is effected by several factors the one that is at the lowest level will we the one that limit the rate of reaction.
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what are the main plant organs for making food?
the leaves.
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why are the outer epidermal cells of a leaf transparent?
to allow light through.
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what role do the pallisade and the spongy mesophyll have inside the leaf?
they are cells full of chloroplast which contain chlorophyll and other pigments that absorb light energy for photosynthesis.
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what are in the lower edipermis?
pores call stomata which are protected by guard cells that open and close to allow genes in and out.
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2 advantages of a leaf for photosynthesis?
they have a large suface area so they absorb as much light as possible, the epidemis is transparent.
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what is diffusion?
a way that particles can move into or out of a cell.
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what happens in difusion?
particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower down a concentration gradient. they move till they are evenly spread.
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how does diffusion happen in cells?
many dissolved substances enter and leave the cells by diffusion including important molecules like oxygen. substances can diffuse as gases or as dssolved particles in solution.
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how to particles get into the cell?
they pass through te cell membrance, the membrane will only allow small molecues through. diffusion does not use energy because the molecues move spontaneously from high conc to low.
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why does diffusion happen?
because of constant random movement of particles in solutions constantly move.
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what 3 factors can effect the rate of diffusion?
distance- shorter distance the particles have to move, the faster the rate of diffusion. Concentration gradient- the greater the difference in concentration between two regions the faster the rate.. Surface area- the greater the surface area .
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what is osmosis?
special kind of diffusion. water moving into and out of cells by osmosis.
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what is a pertially permeable membrane?
a membrane that only some molecules can pass through.
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why is the movement of osmosis water important for plants and animals?
because it keeps their cells in balance.
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what happens to plant cells when they take up water from osmosis?
the cells become firm. the cells contents push against the inelastic cell wall. it helps support the plant.
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why is osmosis important to animals?
because they have no cell wall and they are sensitive to water concentrations so if they talke it too much or lose too much the cells are damaged and can die.
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how are cells organised in both animals and plants?
groups of similar cells work together as a tissue, groups of different cells work together as an organ.
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what are the 2 major tissues in a plant?
xylem and phloem found in the vascular bundles.
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what is the role of the vascular bundles?
they form a continuous transport system from the root, through the stem and into the leaves. they are for transport and support.
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what is the structure of the xylem?
these cells are dead and have a hollow cavity called the lumen. they are staced on top of eachother to form a long hollow tube. they are involved in the transport of water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the shoots and leaves.
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what is the phloem?
transport the food substances in the leaf to all other parts of the plant.
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how do cells in the xylem help support the plant?
they have thicene, strenghtened cellulose cell walls that help support.
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how does the location of the xylem and vascular bundles help them carry out their functions?
in the root the vascular bundles are located in the centre. root acts like an anchor and allows it to bend as the plant moves. the stem the vb are located around the outer edge to provide strenght to resist bending.
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what is the transpiration system?
the xylem continuosly transporting water and minerals up from the root to the leaf.
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what is translocation?
the transportation of sugars made in photosynthesis in the leaf to areas of the plant that are used for storagr or are still growing.
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what is transpiration
water leaving the plant by evaporation and diffusion from inside the leafs.
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why is it so important for plants to have water?
needed for photosynthesis, when water evaporates from the leaf it is a coling effect for the plant, as water moves through the plant is transports dissolved minerals.
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how does a leaf reduce water loss?
very few stomata on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. each stomata can be opened or closed when the plant is photosynthesising the stomata are open and closed at night when water loss is reduced.
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wha are guard cells?
2 special cells on either side of the stoma.
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what do guard cells do?
when there is plently of light and water the guard cells take up water by osmosis, swell and become turgid. this causes them to bend and open the stoma. if there is little water they do not become turgid and do not open the stoma.
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when the stoma opens why is it good?
because carbon dioxide can enter the leaf and oxygen can leave.
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why is it good when the stoma closes when conditions are bad for photosynthesis?
reduces water loss.
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what factors effect the rate of transpiration? make faster?
increse in light energy, temperature, air movement, humidity.
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what is a potometer?
a piece of apparatus biologists use to measure the rate of transpiration.
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why is a potometer useful?
because you can change a factor such as light level or temperature and not the change on the rate of transporation by noting how fast the bubble moves along the glass tube. it shows how quiclkly the water is moving through the plant.
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how can you increase the rate of transpiration?
increasing light intensisty- more stomata will open which allows more water to evaporate. Increase in temperature, the faster the air particles will move. Increased air movement,- when the air moves over the leaf it moves evaported water molecules.
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how will decreased huitity increase the rate of transpiration?
the less humid air, the less water in it. this makes a greater concentration gradient between he inside and outside of the leaf. water molecules will diffuse out more quickly and increase the rate of tranpiration.
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what minerals do plants need and why?
nitrogen TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS used to bulid proteins for cell growth. PHOSPHORUS- in respiation to make an energy storing molecule. MAGNESIUM- needed to make chlorophyl for photosynthesis.
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what is active transport?
a method used to move molecules across the cell membrane and into the cell.
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what are 2 key eatues of active transport?
requires energy from respiration in the molecule ATP. it needs a carrier protein in the membrane.
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what happens when an animal eats a plant?
the plant molecules become part of the animal.
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when plants and animals die what happens?
their bodies decay and the decay process releases the element back into the environment for the plants to reuse.
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what makes the rate of decay faster
temperature, amount of oxygen, amount of water.
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how does the amount of water make the rate of decay faster?
microbes need water to remain healthy in most conditions the microbes will grow faster and reprodice more.
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what are the 2 main groups of decay organisms?
detritoveres- earthworms, maggots eat small parts of the dead aterial which they digest and release as waste. Decomposers- bacteria and fungi chemically break down dead material, releasing ammonium compounds intot he soil.
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what is meant by saprotrophic feeding?
decomposers are saprophytes they feed by releasing enzymes onto the dead animal or plant. the enzymes digest the dead material in a process called EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION.
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What ae 2 consequences of food decay?
it reduces the amount of food for people to eat, it can lead to illness.
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how can we prevent decay in food?
canning- kills any microbes and prevents the entry of oxygen. Freezing- keep food at a low temp -5 and thats when decomposers stop reproducing. Adding salt- water drwan out of the microbes by osmosis and then kills them.
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what is intensive farming?
farms that try and produce the maximum amount of food per hectare of land.
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what are some advantages of intensive farming?
large amounts of food produced, low cost of production, less labour intesive.
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disadvantages of intensive farming?
pesticides, fertilisers, battery rearing of animals in small enclosures.
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what are 2 important intesive farming techniques?
the use of pesticides, battery farming.
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what are pesticides?
chemicals that kill pests.
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what are the different types of pesticide?
insecticids kill incests, because they can eat crops or sprad diseases to animals. Fungicides kill fungi which leads to the decay of plants- ringworm in sheep. Herbicides kill weeds which might cmompete with the crop resources such as light water..
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why are pesticides useful for farmers?
at every link in the food chain less energy is lost to pests. it increases the yeild for the farmer and can also increase ofit.
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what is the disadvantage of pesticides?
they are artificial chemicals that can enter and build up or accumilate in the food chain. can effect human health.
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what is battery farming?
a technique in which a large number of animals are reared outdoors. advantage is that they cannoit move around as much and are kept warmer which stops them wasting energy. a disadvantage would be that it is less humaine, they cannot roam freely.
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what are fish farms?
where fish are bred and reared in large cages in rivers or the sea.
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disadvantages of fish farming?
the fish are kept close together so diseases spread quickly and could escape and infect the wild population.
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what are some advantages of glasshouses?
farmers can manipulate the environment and grow tender crops all year round, diseases can be treaed and controlled inside the glasshouse more easily than in feilds. they can be placed anywhere in the uk.
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what is hydroponics?
inside glasshouses plants are grown without soil. they are suspended with their roots exposed and sprayed with a solution containing the correcrt concentration of minerals dissolved in the water.
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advantages of hydroponics?
plants can be grown in areas with poor soil because its not required. better use of place. water is recycled.
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disadvantages of hydroponics?
no support for the plant as the roots are not anchored in the soil, so a frame or tray is needed. no soil to hold and store minerals and fertilisers need to be added constantly as dissolved minerals.
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what is an organic farmers aim?
to produce small amount of high quality food, does not use artificial chemicals.
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2 organic farming methods to provide the plants with minerals?
animal manure and compost made from leaf litter. weeding removes competition from other plants, labour intensive.
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what is biological control?
what organic farmers use. they introcuce a natural predator for the pest which will ill and eat the pest.
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advantages of biological control?
no need to use artificial chemicals, no chemicals escape and damage the environment or kill other animals.
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disadvantages of biological control?
the predator may not eat the pest, may each useful species, may increase in number and become out of control, may not stay in the area that it is needed. impact on food web.
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what techniques do biologists need to collect information about organisms


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what is the technique called sampling?


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