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What is an Eco system?
A physical environment with a paricular set of conditions
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What are the two different types Of Eco systems?
Natural and artificial
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What do natural Eco systems have?
High biodiversity - different species of animals and plants. They coexist in the same environment
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What are artificial ecosystems?
Greenhouses - designed and maintained so that they have lower biodiversity
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What is a habitat?
Part of the physical environment where animals or plants live
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What is a community?
Total number of indiviuals of all the different populations of animals that live together in a habitat at any one time
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What is a population?
A population is the total number of individual of the same species that live in a certain area
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What is an ecosystem?
Self supporting in all factors (providing mates and shelter) they rely on sun
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What is a community?
Total numbers of individuals of different populations of plants and animals that live togethe her in any habitat at one time
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What is capture-recapture also known as?
Lincoln Index
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How does capture-recapture happen?
Traps used to capture simple things (mice). Sample is then marked with tag, paint dots etc. then released unharmed more capture- some are already marked. Then unmarked animals are counted
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How can you calculate population size?
Population = no. In 1st sample (all marked) x no. In 2nd sample (marked and unmarked) / no. In 2nd sample which were previously marked
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What is capture - recapture also known as?
The Lincoln method
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What do you have to consider when using the capture - recapture method ?
Assume no organisms have died, immigrated between samples, make sure the marking so make sure marking doesnt affect their survival
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What is a transect line?
Use to map the distribution of organisms
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How can the results from the transect lines be presented?
A kite diagram
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What do kite diagrams show?
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What is zonation?
The gradual change of distribution of species
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When plans make their own food using sunlight whats it called?
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What ism he word and symbol equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen......CO2 + H2O -> C6H12O6 + O2
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what can glucose starch be converted to in photosynthesis?
energy during respiration, proteins for growth and repair, starch fats and oils which can be stored in seeds and cellulose for cell walls
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how can glucose be transported around the plant?
travels around the body in soluable sugar
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what must glucose in the plant be stored as?
starch whihc is insoluable
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what doesnt starch effect in the plant? why?
water concertration because is it insoluable
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*** can you increase the rate of photoynthesis?
the temp-use heaters in green house. light intensity-use lamps in greenhouse.
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as the temperature rises in photo synthesis what also rises?
the rate of photosynthesis
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what is the temperature classed as in photosynthesis? why?
he tmperature is the limiting factor because the enzymes start to denature at 45 degrees
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why do plants respire?
to break down oxygen
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is it true or fals that plants can only respire in sunlight?
false, they can respire day and night but only photosynthesise in daylight
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what is the by product of photosynthesis?
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where does photosynthesis normall take place?
mainly the leaves
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what are the 4 main parts to the leaf?
upper epidemis-to transport sunlight to layer below, palisade layer-cells have lots of chlorophyll so that maximum amount of sunlight is absorbed, spongy mesophyll has lots of air, lower epidermis
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what does the upper eppidermis transport?
allows sunlight through to layer below
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what happens to carbon dioxide when photosynthesis takes place in plants?
diffuses through the stomata
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what are stomata?
tiny pores on the underside of the plant to help absorbtion of gasses
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where does oxygen leave in photosynthesis?
diffuses out of the stomata
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how do substances move in and out of the cell?
diffusuion through the cell membrane
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what is diffusion?
when particles move from high concertration to low concerntration
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how can the rate of diffusion be increased?
bigger surafec area of cell mebrane, bigger difference between concerntrations, particles have shorter distances to travel
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what happens at night in terms of diffusion?
oxygen diffuses into leaf cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out of leaf cells
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what are the stomata adapted to do?
open-increase the rate of diffusion of carbon dixide and oxygen but closed up enough to stop liquids from leavin the plant
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what is osmosis?
diffusion in water - from high concerntration to low concerntration
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where is osmosis in animal cells?
water diffuses in and out of cell membrane
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what could happen to a cell is too much water is entered in?
it could burst
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when red blood cells are in normal environment, weaker solution and concerntrated solution, what happens?
normal- the red blood cell is the same size as the cytoplasm. weaker- the expand and swell up. concerntrated-shrivel up
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what is the cell walls job in terms of osmosis in plants?
prevents cell from bursting, contributes to it being rigid
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what is it called when pressure of water is pushing against cell wall?
turgur pressure
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what is the vascular bundle?
xylem and phloem continous tubes running from roots to leaves.
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what is the job of the xylum?
transports water and soluable minerals
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what is the phloems job?
allows movement of food and (sugars) arounf the plant
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what is transporation?
diffusion and evaporation of water from inside the leaf. provides plants with cooling system
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what can the rate of transporation be affected by?
light, more light=faster photosynthesis, air movement=as air movement increases, transprotation increases, temp=heat makes fater photosynthesis ad transporation, humidity=increases rate of transpiration
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what are the essential minerals to for plants?what are the for?
nitrates=to make proteins potassium compounds=for respiration+photosynthesis. phosphates=for respiration and cell growth. magnesium- for photosynthesis
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what is the definition of decay?
breaking down complex substances into simple ones by micro-organisms
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what are the 4 main factors of decay?
microbes, temperature, oxygen, moisture
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what are some examples of detrovites?
earthworms, woodlice, maggots detrovites
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what do detrovites feed on?
dead organisms, decaying material, living organisms
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what are examples of decomposers?
fungi, bacteria
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how can preserving food be done? why si this done??
removing oxygen, warmth or moisture, this is because micro-organisms need these to survive and grown
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what is intensive farming?
aim to produce as much food as possible by using available land plants and animals.
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what are pesticides, insectcides, fungicides and herbicides?
pestecides=used to kill pests from ruining crop. insectcides=used to kill insects. fungicides=used to kill fungi. herbicides=use to kill weeds
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what is the risk of using pesticides?
it can harm other organisms, build up in food chains- for even years
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how can intensive farming be increased?
battery farming, glass houses, hydrophonics, fish farming
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what is organic farming and why do people us it?
grow crops without chemicals, to minimise the impact on the environment
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what is hydrophonics? how does it work?
grow plants without soil, places in a mixture of all the minerals they need for growth.
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what is biological control?
to introduce a predator instead of a pesticide to kill pests
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Card 2


What are the two different types Of Eco systems?


Natural and artificial

Card 3


What do natural Eco systems have?


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Card 4


What are artificial ecosystems?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a habitat?


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