B4

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What's a habitat?
Where a plant or animal lives
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What's biodiversity?
Range of organisms living in a habitat
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How can the distribution of organisms be mapped out?
Using a transect line
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How does a transect line measure population?
A long length of string is laid out across an area, at regular intervals the organisms in a square frame called a quadrat cant be counted for animals or assessed for % cover for plants
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How can the data from a transect line be displayed?
As a kite diagram
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What happens in a artificial ecosystem that doesn't in a natural ecosystem?
In an artificial system one species is protected other organisms that would compete with the protected organisms are kept out
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What can a transect line show?
Zonation in the distribution of organisms
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What causes zonation?
Changes in abiotic(not biological) factors such as trampling near at footpath
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What makes an ecosystem self-supporting?
Animals and plants in a food chain are interdependent and photosynthesis and respiration ensures a balance of gases
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What does a capture-recapture method mean?
Capturing some organisms within a quadrat, marking them, letting them go and then recapturing them later and seeing how many have the original mark
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What's the formula to calculate population size?
number in 1st sample x number in 2nd sample/ number in 2nd sample previously marked
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What makes an estimation of population size more accurate?
A bigger quadrat and more samples
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What does a capture-recapture method assume?
There are no deaths or reproduction and no movement of animals into and out of the area, identical sampling methods are used for both samples, the marking do not affect the survival of the organisms
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What's the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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What can simple sugars like glucose be used for by plants?
Respiration, converted to cellulose for cell walls, proteins for growth and repair, converted to starch, fats and oils for storage
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Why is starch used for storage?
Insoluble and does not move from storage areas, does not affect the water concentration of cells unlike glucose and cause osmosis
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What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis?
Water is split up by light energy, releasing oxygen gas and hydrogen ions, carbon dioxide combines with hydrogen ions producing glucose and water
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What is used in modern experiments to show light splits up water not carbon dioxide?
A green alga called Cholrella and an isotope of oxygen as part of a water molecule
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What effects the rate of photosynthesis?
More carbon dioxide, more light, high temperature which increases enzyme action
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What do plants take in and release during respiration?
Take in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
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Why can plant respiration only be noticed at night(in the dark)?
The rate of gas exchange in photosynthesis is more that that of respiration in terms of quantities
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What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis and why?
Light, temperature and carbon dioxide a lack of any of these will limit the rate of photosynthesis
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How is the outer epidermis adapted for photosynthesis?
Lacks chloroplasts, so its transparent, this means there is no barriers for the entry of light
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How is the upper palisade adapted for photosynthesis?
Contains most of the leafs chloroplasts so will receive most of the light
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How is the spongy mesophyll cells adapted for photosynthesis?
They are loosely spaced so that diffusion of gases between cells and the outside atmosphere can take place
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How does the arrangement of mesophyll cells make photosynthesis more efficient?
Creates a larger surface area to volume ratio so large amount of gases can enter and exit the cells
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How are leaves adapted for efficient photosynthesis?
Large surface area=as much as light as possible,thin so gases can diffuse quickly+get to all cells,contain chlorophyll=can use light from a broad range of the light spectrum,vascular bundles=support+transport of chemicals
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Another adaptation of the leaf is specialised guard cells, what do they control?
They control the opening and closing of the stomata to regulate flow of carbon dioxide, oxygen and water loss
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What is cholropyll a and b?
Carotene and xanthophylls
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How does having many pigments maximise the use of the suns energy?
Each pigments absorbs light of different wavelengths
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What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles in a gas or liquid from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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How are leaves adapted to the rate of diffusion?
Large surface area, specialised openings called stomata, gaps between the spongy mesophyll cells
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How can the rate of diffusion be increased?
Shorter distance for molecules to travel, a greater difference in concentration between the two areas, a greater surface area for molecules to diffuse into
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What is osmosis?
The movement of water through a partially permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to a area of low water concentration
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What does osmosis depend on?
The presence of a partially permeable membrane that allows small water molecules to pass through but not big molecules like glucose
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What makes it possible to predict the net movement of water molecules?
Knowing the different concentrations of water outside and inside the cell
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What does the entry of water into plant cells increase?
The pressure pushing on the cell wall, which is rigid not elastic
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What does this turgor pressure on the cell do?
Supports the cells and stops it and the whole plant from collapsing
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What happens when too much water leave a plant cell?
It looses the turgor pressure and wilts
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What do you call a plant cell full of water?
Turgid
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What happens to the plant cell when water leaves?
Becomes plasmolysed and the cell is called flaccid
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What happens when to much water enters an animal cell and why does it do this?
The cells swell up and burst(lysis) this is because animal cells lack a supporting cell wall
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What happens to the animal cells when too much water leaves?
Shows crenation by shrinking into a scalloped shape
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What do xylem and phloem cells form?
Vascular bundles in dicotyledonous plants
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How do guard cells open the stomata?
They contain cholorplasts so photosyntheisis(in the presence of water and light) will prduce sugars, increasing turgor pressure, causing the cells to swell. Due to different thickenesses of their cell walls, the guard cells curve, opening the stomata
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How can be water loss be reduced further, in terms of the stomata?
Fewer stomata, smaller stomata, position of the stomata, distribution of the stomata
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Why do plants need nitrates and what are they used for?
For proteins used for growth, used to make amino acids
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Why do plants need phosphates and what are they used for?
Respiration and growth, used to make DNA
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Why do plants need potassium compounds and what are they used for?
Respiration and photosynthesis, used to help enzymes in photosynthesis and respiration
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Why do plants need magnesium compounds and what are they used for?
Photosynthesis, used to make chlorophyll for photosynthesis
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What symptoms do a lack of nitrates show?
Poor growth and yellow leaves
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What symptoms do a lack of phosphates show?
Poor root growth and discoloured leaves
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What symptoms does a lack of pottasium show?
Poor flower and root growth, discoloured leaves
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What symptoms does a lack of magnesium show?
Yellow leaves
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How are minerals taken into plants?
By root hairs through active transport
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What is active transport?
Cells use energy to transport substances through cell membranes against a concentration gradient
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What are detritivores and give an example of a few?
Organisms that feed on dead and decaying material(detritus) e.g. earthworms, maggots, woodlice
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How do detritivores increase the rate of decay?
Breaking up the detritus so increasing the surface area for further microbial breakdown
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What increase the rate of decay?
Increasing temperature, amount of oxygen and water
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How does an increase of temperature increase the rate of decay?
Raising the temperature to the optimum for bacteria(37 degree) and fungi(25 degrees)will increase their rate of photosynthesis
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How does increasing the amount of oxygen increase the rate of decay?
Bacteria will use aerobic respiration to grow and reproduce faster
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How does increasing the amount of water increase the rate of decay?
It will allow material to be digested and absorbed more efficiently and increase growth and reproduction of bacteria and fungi
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What's a saprophyte?
E.g. fungus, an organisms that feeds on dead and decaying material
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How does canning reduce the rate of decay?
Foods are heated to kill bacteria, then sealed in a vacuum to prevent the entry of bacteria and oxygen
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How does cooling foods reduce the rate of decay?
Slows down bacteria and fungi growth and reproduction
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How does freezing foods reduce the rate of decay?
Kill some bacteria and fungi and slow down their growth and reproduction
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How does drying foods reduce the rate of decay?
Removes water so bacteria bacteria cannot feed or grow
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How does adding salt or sugar reduce the rate of decay?
Will kill some bacteria and fungi as the high osmotic concentration will remove all the water from them
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How does adding vinegar reduce the rate of decay?
Produces very acidic conditions killing most bacteria and fungi
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What are the disadvantages of pesticides?
Can enter and accumulate food chains, can harm other organisms that aren't pests, some are persistent
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What's organic farming?
Farming that doesn't use artificial fertilizers or pesticides
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What type of methods does organic farming use?
Manure or compost for fertilizers, crop rotation to avoid a build up of soil pests, nitrogen fixing crops as part of the rotation, varying seed planting times to get a longer crop time and avoid certain times of the life cycle of pests
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What are the disadvantages of organic farming?
Crops are smaller and the produce is expensive
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What is biological control?
A natural predator is released to reduce the number of pests infesting a crop
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What problems does biological control create?
The introduced species might eat other useful species and then showing a rapid increase in their population so they them self become pests
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Describe hydroponics?
Growing plants in mineral solutions without the need for soil,the solution is recycled and regulated, normally done in a green house or poly tunnels
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Where are hydroponics useful?
In areas of barren soil or low rainfall
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What are the advantages of hydroponics?
Better control over minerals and disease, plants can be grown in a small space
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What is good about battery farming in terms of energy?
Less energy is used for movement and heat so more energy is used for growth, can be sold quickly
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How does intensive farming improve efficiency of energy transfer in food chains?
By removing competing organisms like pests and weeds
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What do xylem cells do?
Carry water and mineral from the roots to the leaves
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What phloem cells do?
Carry food substances such a sugars up and down stems to growing and storage tissues
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What is the transport of food substances called?
Translocation
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What are xylem cells?
They are called vessels, they are dead cells, the lack of cytoplasm leaves hollow lumen. Their cellulose walls have extra thickening of lignin giving greater strength and support
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What are phloem cells?
Living cells that are arranged in columns
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What is transpiration?
The evaporation and diffusion of water from inside leaves
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What does transpiration help create?
A continuous flow of water from the roots to the leaves in xylem cells
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What are root hairs and what do they produce?
Projections from root hair cells, they produce a larger surface area for water uptake by osmosis
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What does transpiration ensure?
That plants have water for cooling by evaporation, photosynthesis and support from cells 'turgor pressure and transport of minerals
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How is water loss reduced in plants?
A waxy cuticle covering the outer epidermal cells, most stomatal opening being situated on the shaded lower surface
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How are spongy mesophyll cells made efficient for photosynthesis?
They are covered with a film of water in which the gases dissolve , this water can then readily escape through the stomata
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How does an increase in light intensity increase the rate of transpiration?
The stomata is open
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How does an increase in temperature increase the rate of transpiration?
Increase in the evaporation of water
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How does an increase in air movement increase the rate of transpiration?
Blowing away air containing a lot of evaporated water
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How does a decrease in humidity(mount of water vapour in the atmosphere) increase the rate of transpiration?
Allowing more water to evaporate
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What is extracellular digestion?
A form of digestion where enzymes digest food outside their cells and reabsorb the simple soluble substances
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What's biodiversity?

Back

Range of organisms living in a habitat

Card 3

Front

How can the distribution of organisms be mapped out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does a transect line measure population?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can the data from a transect line be displayed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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