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Name the process that releases energy
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What is the chemical reaction that uses energy from sunlight
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What is an enzyme
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions
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Use the lock and key model to describe why an enzyme only works with a particular molecule
The substrate has the exact shape for the enzyme so it fits in
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Explain how changing the the pH can slow an enzyme reation
A raising temperature can denature the enzyme it causes changes to the shape of the active site so the substrate no longer fits. This means the enzyme stops working and denatures it.
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What is the word and symbol equation for photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide + water --> glucose + oxygen == 6CO2 + 6H20 ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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What three ways can glucose be used
1) For growth 2) starch for energy sources 3) respiration to release energy
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Whats two structures found in plant cells but not in animal cells
Cell wall and Chloroplasts
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What is the function for the following things 1) chloroplasts 2) cell membrane 3) nucleus 4) cytoplasm
1) contains chlorophyll and enzymes for the reaction in photosynthesis 2) allows gases and water to pass in and out 3) contains DNA which carries the genetic code 4) where the enzymes and other proteins are made
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describe the process of diffusion
The passive overall movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration
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What is mean by osmosis
the movement of water molecules from dilute to a more concentrated solution
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What is meant by active transport
It uses energy to make essential chemicals
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What three factors which effect the rate of photosynthesis
1) Temperature 2) Carbon Dioxide levels 3) Light intensity
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Give three examples involving chemical reaction requiring energy
1) movement 2) synthesis of large molecules 3) active transport
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Give the word and symbol equation for aerobic respiration
glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide == C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration
glucose --> lactic acid + energy
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What is two ways in which aerobic is different to anaerobic respiration
aerobic requires oxygen and aerobic releases more energy
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What is the optimum temperature of an enzyme
30 degrees
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Describe using a quadrat in fieldwork
It is a square frame put on the ground the plants inside the quadrat are counted. The grid is distributed randomly and you can take several readings. The percentage is then estimated.
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Describe using a light meter in fieldwork
This measures the light levels. You hold the equipment at ground level and take a reading you then take several more readings in different locations
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Describe using a identification key in fieldwork
You compare plants seen to a picture of a description. You use this to find names of a plant in a quadrat you can then compare the locations.
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Which single cell divides by mitosis to produce an embryo
A zygote
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Describe the cells in a human embryo up to and including the eight cell stage
They are identical and unspecialised. All of the genes are switched on and it can develop into all types of cells
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Describe the human embryo after the eight cell stage
They are not identical and specialised. Some of the genes are switched off and it can't develop into all types of cells
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What is the name given to any plant tissue which can produce new cells
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Describe cutting to make a clone.
You cut off a small shoot and dip in hormone powder, you then place in soil and water it until roots grow due to the same genes
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Name the process that allows plants to grow towards light
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How can phototropism increase the plants chance of survival?
The plant grows towards the light so therefore increased photosynthesis meaning more food
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Explain how auxin brings about directional growth
Auxin is in the tip of the plant, it diffuses away from the tip. The auxin moves away from the bright light and collects at the dark area the auxin then increases growth on the dark side
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What type of cell division takes place to produce two new cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell?
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Describe ideas about cell growth in the cell cycle
The number of organelles increase and the chromosomes are copied when each DNA molecule separate and new strands from alongside them
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Describe ideas about mitosis in the cell cycle
Copies of the chromosomes separate and the nucleus divide
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What is the name for the type of cell that is produced from meosis
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Explain why it is important that the gametes only contain half the chromosomes number of the parent cell
Gametes fuse and carry out fertilization. The chromosome number must be half so that the parental number is maintained
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The order of bases in a gene is the genetic code for the production of what molecule?
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How do different genes make different proteins
A gene has a sequence of bases and DNA is transcribed to RNA. A copy of the gene is transferred to the cytoplasm and amino acids join to make protein
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What is meant by a stimulus
A stimulus is a change in the environment of an organism
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Whats two ways that reflex actions can help an animal to survive
It will help it find food and help it avoid predators
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Give some examples of simple reflex actions in new born babies
Stepping, Grasping, Sucking, Rooting, Pupil reflex, Dropping a hotobjects
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What is the process of a receptor in a reflex
Detection of a stimuli
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What is the process of processing centers in a reflex
Receiving information and coordinating responses
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What is the process of effectors in a reflex
Producing the response
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Which system is made up of neurons linking receptor cells to effector cells
Nervous System
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What do neurons transmit when stimulated
Electrical impulses
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What is an axon
A long extension of the cytoplasm in a neuron and is surrounded by cell membrane
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Describe two functions of the fatty sheath
insulates the neuron from other cells and increases the speed of transmission of nerve impulse
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What is the role of the sensory neurons
Carrying impulses from receptors to the central nervous system
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What is the role of the motor nerons
Carrying impulses from the central nervous system to effectors
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Describe the main features of a reflex arc
The receptor detects stimulus and electrical impulses travels to the spinal cord. The receptor to the sensory neuron to the motor neuron to the effector which makes the most movement
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Explain how a release of a chemical from a neuron can lead to an electrical impulse in another neuron
The chemical transmitter moves by diffusion across the synapse where it binds to receptors on the membrane of the other neuron and then this binds to to other specific chemicals
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How does ecstasy cause an increase in serotonin concentration
Serotonin is not absorbed and the re absorption site is blocked
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Which part of the brain is most concerned with intellegence
Cerable cortex
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Suggest advantages and disadvantages of electrical stimulation of the brain
A) gives specific results D) may harm the patient, invasive, infection and requires trained doctors
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Suggest advantages and disadvantages of MRI brain scan
A) doesn't harm the patient, provides detailed information, not intrusive, quicker D) expensive, requires trained technicians
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What is meant by conditioning
A reflex response to a new stimulus can be learned by introducing the secondary stimulus in association with the primary stimulus
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Some feral children do not learn language skills explain why
A feral child has been without human contact for years some language skills cannot be acquired after a certain age.
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Give an example of something in your short term memory and something in your long term
ST) remembering a telephone number from a directory LT) remembering your adress
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Describe how the multi store model explains how memory works
Information is held in short term memory aand information can be moved to long term memory by repetition. Recalling the information is called retrieval and the lack of this means information can be forgotten which is an exit route.
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Card 2


What is the chemical reaction that uses energy from sunlight



Card 3


What is an enzyme


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Card 4


Use the lock and key model to describe why an enzyme only works with a particular molecule


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Explain how changing the the pH can slow an enzyme reation


Preview of the front of card 5
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Check Your Grammar there are a few mistakes


excellent set of clear notes


There are a few mistakes but oh well these flashcards are fantastic and will help me pass my B456 exam. Thank you so much for making these!

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