• Created by: xxemilyxx
  • Created on: 11-06-14 12:03
What is a square frame used for samples called?
A quadrat
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Population size =
(No. in first sample X no. in second) / No. of marked in second sample
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What is an Ecosystem?
All the organisms living in a particular area and the conditions
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What is the line called that is used for measuring distribution?
A transect
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What are abiotic factors?
Non-living, physical factors
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What is zonation?
The gradual change in the distribution of species across a habitat
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What is biodiversity?
A measure of the variety of life in an area.
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Photosynthesis equation
6CO(2) + 6h(2)O -> C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2)
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What is the light energy used for?
To split water into oxygen and hydrogen ions
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What does the carbon dioxide do?
Combines with the hydrogen ions to make glucose and water
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What is glucose turned into in seeds?
Lipids (fats and oils) for storing
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What does glucose combine with to make proteins?
Nitrates collected from the soil.
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Why is glucose turned into starch?
Because starch is insoluble so it can't dissolve and move away from the storage solution and it doesn't affect the water concentration.
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What did Van Helmont do?
Worked out that plants gained mass by taking up water. He planted a willow tree and weighed it 5 years later and found out that it gained a lot more mass than the soil lost.
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What did Joseph Priestly do?
Found out that plants produced oxygen by putting a candle and a mouse in sealed containers with and without a plant
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What increases the rate of diffusion?
Bigger surface area, greater concentration gradient, shorter distance.
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What can diffuse through cell membranes?
Small molecules like simple sugars, water and ions
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Respiration in plants
glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
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What are vascular bundles?
transport vessels, xylem which carry water and minerals from the roots and ploem tubes which transport food - mainly sugars
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Osmosis is...?
The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane
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When a cell is filled with water it is...?
Turgid. It has turgor pressure which supports the pant tissues.
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When it starts to lose its turgor pressure it becomes...?
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When there is not enough water and the cytoplasm starts to shrink and the membrane pulls away from the cell wall it is...?
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Why does an animal cell burst (lysis) if it has too much water?
They don't have inelastic cell walls
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What is transpiration?
Water loss from a plant caused by evaporation and diffusion of water vapour from inside the leaves.
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Nitrates are needed for...?
Making amino acids for cell growth. Lack of it will cause yellow older leaves.
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Phosphates are used for...?
Respiration and growth. Phosphorus makes DNA and cell membranes. Lack of it will cause poor root growth and discoloured leaves.
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Potassium is used for...?
helping enzymes for photosynthesis and respiration. Lack of it will cause poor flower and fruit growth and discoloured leaves.
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What is active transport?
Using energy from respiration to help pull minerals into the root against the concentration gradient.
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What do detritivors do?
Break up decaying material into smaller bits to give a bigger surface area for smaller decomposers to work on, speeding up decay. Earthworms, Maggots, Woodlice.
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What do Saprophytes do?
Extracellular digestion - they secrete digestive enzymes that break down the material into smaller bits which can be absorbed by the saprophyte. Many are Fungi.
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What is hydroponics?
Plants grown in nutrient solutions. Minerals can be controlled but there is no soil to anchor roots.
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What is biological control?
Using living things to control a pest, e.g. Ladybirds eat aphids, wasps lay larvae on insects which eventually kill the host.
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What is crop rotation?
Having different crops each year to stop pests and diseases of a specific crop building up. Plant legume plants which put nutrients back into the soil.
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How does cartilage turn into bone?
Blood vessels deposit calcium and phosphorus until it turns to bone. - ossification
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What is osteoporosis?
When calcium is lost from the bones making them softer and more brittle.
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What are synovial joints?
The main type of joint. They are held together by ligaments that have high tensile strength.the ends of the bone are covered by cartilage as a shock absorber and the synovial membrane releases synovial fluid to lubricate the joints.
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What are antagonistic pairs?
A pair that does the opposite
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Why don't babies need a double-circulatory system?
They get oxygen from the mother via the placenta so blood doesn't need to travel to the lungs.
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What is the pressure of blood in a single circulatory system like?
Fairly low
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What did Claudius Galen do?
Studies animal hearts.
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What are pacemakers?
A group of cells that control how fast the heart beats by producing small electric currents making the heart muscles contract.
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What does the sino-atrial node (SAN) do?
Stimulates the ventricles to contract.
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WHat does the atrio-ventricular (AVN) node do?
Stimulates the ventricles to contract.
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What do electrocardiograms do?
Show the electrical activity of the heart.
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What do heart-lung machines do?
Keep the blood oxygenated and pumping during heart or lung surgery.
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What do mechanical ventilators do?
Push air in and out of a patient's lungs if they stop breathing.
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What do the intercostal muscles and diaphragm do?
Contract and increase the volume of the thorax (the part of the body containing your lungs) expanding the lungs and decreasing the pressure inside them which draws air in.
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What is the vital capacity?
The total lung capacity minus the residual air.
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What do the cilia do?
Beat microbe-filled mucus out of the lungs are phlegm.
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What is asbestosis?
Inflammation and scarring in the lungs limiting gas exchange caused by asbestos in industrial materials.
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What is cystic fibrosis?
An inherited lung condition where a single defective gene causes the lung to produce thicker, sticky mucus that clogs up the bronchioles (small tubes in the lungs) making it difficult to breathe.
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How does smoking cause lung cancer?
It causes cells to divide out of control forming a tumour and reducing the surface area of the lungs.
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What is asthma?
Overly sensitive lungs, when they encounter dust, smoke etc. the muscles around the bronchioles contract and constrict the airways. The lining of airways become inflamed and fluid builds up making it hard to breathe.
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What is digestion?
Breaking big molecules into smaller ones.
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What do carbohydrases do?
Break down carbohydrates into simple sugars in the mouth and small intestine. Starch->Maltose->Glucose
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What do proteases do?
Break proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine.
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What do lipases do?
Break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.
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What does bile do?
It is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It breaks down fats into tiny droplets (emulsification) making a bigger surface area for lipase enzymes to work on. It also neutralises stomach acid.
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Where is urea produced?
In the liver from excess amino acids.
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What do the kidneys do?
Remove urea from the blood. Adjust the salt and water content of the blood by filtering under high pressure and reabsorbing the useful things.
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What is ultrafiltration?
High pressure built up squeezing out water, salts, urea and glucose out of the blood into the capsule. Membranes between blood vessels in the glomerulus and the capsule act like filters so big molecules stay in the blood.
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What happens in reabsorption?
The liquid flows along the nephron, all sugar and sufficient salt is reabsorbed by active transport and sufficient water is reabsorbed according to the level of ADH.
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How does dialysis work?
Dialysis fluid has the same concentration of sodium and glucose as the blood so those aren't removed. Between the blood and fluid is a selectively permeable barrier that lets ions and waste through but not big molecules.
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What are the stages of the menstrual cycle?
The uterus lining breaks down. It then builds up again into a thick spongy layer full of blood vessels. An egg develops and is released (ovulation). The wall is maintained and if no fertilised egg is on the uterus wall by day 28 it breaks down.
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What does FSH do?
Produced in th pituitary gland it causes eggs to develop and stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen.
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What does oestrogen do?
Produced in the ovaries it caused the uterus lining to repair and stimulates the production of LH and stops the production of FSH
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What does LH (luteinising hormone) do?
Produced by the pituitary gland it stimulates the release of an egg and indirectly stimulates progesterone production.
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What does progesterone do?
Produced in the ovaries it maintains the uterus lining and stops LH production. When the progesterone levels drop the lining breaks down.
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What is artificial insemination?
A sperm is placed into a woman's uterus without sex. Used if there is a problem with sperm reaching the egg.
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Why are FSH injections used?
If women has low FSH levels, so their eggs don't develop properly. FSH injections increase fertility.
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What is IVF?
The egg is fertilised outside of the body. She is given hormones to stimulate egg production, the eggs are collected and mixed with sperm then implanted into a uterus.
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Why is IVF controversial?
Extra fertilised eggs (embryos) are thrown away - it's denying life. It increases the chance of multiple pregnancies
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How a foetuses screened?
Amniocentesis - Some of the fluid that surrounds the baby is removed, it contains skin cells so chromosomes can be analyzed.
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What are the four shapes of bacteria?
Rods- bacilli, curved rods- vibro, spheres -cocci and spirals - spirilli
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Aseptic technique for culturing bacteria.
Put bacteria onto agar jelly in a petri dish using an inoculation loop then seal the dish.
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How is yoghurt made?
Pasteurise milk, *** Lactobacillus bacteria, incubate in a fermenter. The bacteria break down lactose sugar into lactic acid which causes the milk to clot and solidify into yoghurt.
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What are the stages of an infectious disease?
The microorganism enters the body and reproduces rapidly. The microorganisms then produce toxins which damage cells and tissues.
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What are antiseptics?
Used outside of the body to prevent infection by cleaning wounds and surfaces.
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What are antibiotics?
Used inside the body to treat those who are are ready infected. They only kill bacteria, not viruses.
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What did Pasteur do?
Came up with the germ theory of disease by having a flask with a curved and straight neck.
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What did Lister do?
Use antiseptics in surgery.
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What is the equation for fermentation?
glucose-> ethanol + carbon dioxide yeast respiring anaerobically.
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How do you brew beer?
Germinate barley grains - the starch is broken down into sugar. Malting - grains dried in kiln. Then mashed up to create a sugary solution. Hops are added for flavour. Yeast is added then mix is incubated and fermented by yeast. Beer is pasteurised.
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What does pasteurising do?
Kill any remaining yeast that isn't killed from high concentrations of alcohol.
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What is distillation?
Separating the alcohol from the alcohol-water solution produced by fermentation. Its heated to 78C, alcohol rises then condenses in a cooled tube
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What is biomass?
Living or recently-dead organic material.
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What is biogass?
70% methane 30% CO2. If it contains too little methane it can explode. Biogas is made from bacteria in a digester respirering.
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What is fermentation?
The breakdown of substances without oxygen.
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What is gasohol?
A mixture of ethanol and petrol.
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What do sandy soils contain?
Large mineral particles, large gaps - high air content and are very permeable.
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What do clay soils contain?
Tiny particles packed tightly together, small gaps - low air content and permeability. Retain more water as the water molecules cling onto the small particles.
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What do loam soils contain?
A mixture.
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How do amoebas regulate water content?
A contractile vacuole that collects water that diffuses in by osmosis, moves to the cell membrane and empties it outside of the cell.
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What are plankton?
Microscopic organisms that live in fresh and salt water. Zooplankton - animals that feed on phytoplankton - pants. Population increases in summer.
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How is diabetes tested for?
Weeing on a regent ***** that changes colour if sugar is present.
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What does sucrase break down?
Sucrose into glucose and fructose - sweeter sugars.
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How are enzymes immobilised?
Capsulate them in alginate beads by mixing enzymes in alginate then dropping them into a calcium chloride solution. They don't contaminate the product.
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What enzyme is used to join the insulin gene to the bacterial plasmid?
Ligase. The plasmid is called a vector.
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What cuts DNA into fragments?
Restriction enzymes.
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In DNA fingerprinting which DNA travels further and how?
It's in gel and negatively charged so it moves towards the positive anode. Smaller bits travel further.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Population size =


(No. in first sample X no. in second) / No. of marked in second sample

Card 3


What is an Ecosystem?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the line called that is used for measuring distribution?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are abiotic factors?


Preview of the front of card 5
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