B4 - It's a green world.

What is a population?
The number of individuals in the same species within a habitat.
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What is a habitat?
The place where a plant or animal lives.
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What is a community?
The TOTAL number of individuals from all populations in a habitat.
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What is an ecosystem?
An environment with particular conditions with all the animals that live in it.
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How can the size and distribution of a population be estimated?
By using a number of sampling techniques.
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Name each sampling technique.
Pooter, Sweep/Pond net, Pitfall trap, Quadrat
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Explain how to use a pooter and it's function.
Sucking one of the two tubes, insects are sucked through the other tube and are collected in a jar. This can gather insects easily and safely.
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Explain how to use a sweep/pond net and it's function.
The net is swept through the grass or woodland to gather a sample. Often used in long grass or dense woodland to sweep up creatures.
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Explain how to use a pitfall trap and it's function.
Set in the ground and uses ethanol/detergents to kill the creatures so the cannot escape. Used to catch small animals or beetles.
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Explain how to use a quadrat and it's function.
These are square frames that are placed randomly to take a sample.
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Why might your sample be inaccurate?
The sample size wasn't large or random enough.
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How do you calculate population size?
(size of 1st sample x size of 2nd sample) divided by number of marked organisms in the 2nd sample.
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What is zonation?
A gradual change in species numbers across a habitat.
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What is biodiversity?
The variety of different types of life found on Earth and within species.
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What is a natural ecosystem?
They are not man made, e.g woodland, ponds. They have a HIGH biodiversity (lots of different species)
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What is an artificial ecosystem?
They are man made, e.g greenhouse, fish farms. They have a LOW biodiversity and they use more fertilizers/weed killers
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What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen
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What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
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What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Light intensity, CO2 concentration, temperature.
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How does temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?
As temperature increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis, meaning temperature is the limiting factor. Enzymes will denature if the temperature gets too high.
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How does light intensity affect the rate of photosynthesis?
As light intensity increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis, meaning light is the limiting factor. When it increase too much, it has no effect.
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How does the concentration of carbon dioxide affect the rate of photosynthesis?
As CO2 concentration increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis, meaning CO2 is the limiting factor.
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What is a solute?
The substance that you dissolve.
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What is a solvent?
The liquid you dissolve a substance in.
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What is a solution?
The product when a substance is dissolved into another.
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What is concentration?
The amount of particles in a substance.
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What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles of a gas or liquid from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
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How can you increase the rate of diffusion?
Increase the surface area of the cell membrane, increase concentration gradient, reduce the distance that particles have to travel.
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How is a leaf adapted for photosynthesis?
They are broad and flat, thin and have a stomata and veins.
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How does being broad and flat help a leaf to photosynthesize?
Gives them a large surface area to absorb sunlight.
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How does being thin help a leaf to photosynthesize?
Gases, e.g oxygen, CO2 only have a short distance to travel to and from cells.
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How does having a stomata and veins help a leaf to photosynthesize?
The holes allow gas exchange and the veins transport water to cells(through the xylem) and remove glucose(through the phloem).
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What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration of water through a semi-permeable membrane.
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Describe the difference between dilute and concentrated solutions.
Dilute solutions have a HIGH concentration of water and concentrated solutions have a LOW concentration of water.
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What happens during osmosis in plant cells?
Water moves into the cell and increase the pressure. The cells walls provide support and withstand the pressure. The call becomes turgid and we call this turgor pressure.
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What happens to a plant if all of the cells are turgid?
The plant is rigid and upright.
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What happens to a plant if the cells are flaccid?
This means water will be in short supply and concentration is lower outside of the cell.They lose turgor pressure and the plant begins to wilt.
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What would happen if too much water diffused into an animal cell?
They swell and eventually burst, this is called lysis.
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What happens when water concentration outside of the cell is too low?
The cell will lose water through osmosis and will shrivel and become crenated.
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Nitrates - Why are they needed? How are they used? Result of deficiency?
Make proteins, provide nitrogen for amino acids, cells do not grow properly and leaves become yellow.
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Potassium - Why are they needed? How are they used? Result of deficiency?
Respiration/photosynthesis, help enzymes in the process, underdeveloped fruit/flowers/discoloured leaves
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Phosphates - Why are they needed? How are they used? Result of deficiency?
Respiration and growth, provide phospherus for DNA and call membrane, underdeveloped roots/discoloured leaves.
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Magnesium - Why are they needed? How are they used? Result of deficiency?
Photosynthesis, make chlorophll, no chlorophyll means leaves will be yellow.
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What is transpiration?
The loss of water through evaporation.
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What does the stem of a plant do?
Supports the plant, transport substances through the xylem and the phloem.
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What do the roots of a plant do?
Anchor the plant into the ground, root hair cells absorb water and minerals.
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What do the leaves of a plant do?
Absorb sunlight to carry out photosynthesis.
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What does the flower of a plant do?
They are the reproductive organs of a plant. No flower = asexual reproduction.
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How is the xylem adapted to carry out it's function?
Hollow tubes made of dead plant cells (living cells affect osmosis) and cell walls are thickened to ensure water cannot leave.
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Describe the phloem.
Made of living cells, long columns of sieve tubes with sieve plates, allowing sugars to move up and down the phloem in both directions.
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What are the factors that affect transpiration?
Light, air movement, temperature, humidity.
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What two microorganisms cause decay?
Fungi and bacteria
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Define decay.
A process involving the breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones by microorganisms.
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How does the amount of O2 increase the rate of decay.
More respiration can take place if there is more oxygen.
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How does temperature affect decay?
Microorganisms contain enzymes which catalyse respiration and have an optimum of 40 degrees and will denature beyond that temperature.
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How does the amount of water affect decay?
Microorganisms grow quickest in moist conditions. However too much water can restrict oxygen supply.
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What is detritus?
Dead organisms and waste.
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What are detritivores?
The organisms that feed on detritus and increase the surface area of it making it easier to feed upon.
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How can you preserve food?
Vacuum sealing (removes oxygen) Freezing (lowers temperature) Canning (removes oxygen) Pickling (lowers pH and denatures enzymes)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a habitat?

Back

The place where a plant or animal lives.

Card 3

Front

What is a community?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an ecosystem?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can the size and distribution of a population be estimated?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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