B4

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  • Created by: Faith16
  • Created on: 03-12-15 19:31
What is the nucleus used for?
It contains DNA which contains the instruments for making proteins.
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What is cytoplasm used for?
Gel-like substance where proteins like enzymes are made. Some enzyme-controlled reactions take place in the cytoplasm e.g. anaerobic respirtation
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What is the cell membrane used for?
It holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out. It lets gases and water pass through freely while acting as a barrier to other chemicals.
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What is the mitochondria used for?
These are where the enzymes needed for the reactions of aerobic respiration are found and where the reactions take place.
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What is in an animal cell?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane and mitochondria
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What is in a plant cell?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole and chloroplasts.
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What is the cell wall used for?
It is made up of cellulose and it supports and strenghtens the cell.
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What are vaculoes used for?
They contain cell sap which is a weak solution of sugar and salts.
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What are chloroplasts used for?
These are where the reactions for photosynthesis take place. They contain chlorophyll and the enzymes which are needed for photosynthesis.
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What is in a yeast cell?
Cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria.
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What is in a bacteria cell?
Cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm and circular DNA molecules (they don't have mitochondrias but they are still respire aerobically)
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What is an enzyme?
Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions.
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Explain the lock and key model.
Every enzyme has an active site where the substrate joins on. However the active sites are different shapes so only certain substrates fit into certain enzymes active sites.
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What two things can denature an enzyme?
Temperature (too hot and the bonds holding the enzyme together bread) pH level (too high or too low and the bonds holding the enzyme together break)
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What is respiration?
Respiration is a series of chemical reactions that release energy by breaking down large food molecules. It happens in every living cell.
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What chemcial reactions are powered by respiration?
Movement (energy is needed), Active Transport (needs energy to move substrances in and out of cells) and Synthesis of Large Molecules (joining smaller molecules to make large molecules need energy)
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What is aerobic respiration?
When you respire using oxygen which takes part in animal and plant cells and in some microorganisms.
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What is the chemical word for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water (+ Energy Released)
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What is anaerobic respiration?
When you respire without oxygen or very little oxygen
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Where does anaerobic respiration take place?
Human Cells- when you go vigorous exercise and your muscles can't get oxygen fast enough. Plant Cells-If a plant is in a water logged field. Bacterial Cells- In a deep puncture wound under you skin there is very little oxygen
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration when producing lactic acid?
Glucose = Lactic acid (+ Energy Released)
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration when producing ethanol and carbon dioxide?
Glucose = Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide (+ Energy Released)
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What is fermentation?
When microorgaisms break down sugars into other products are they respire anaerobically.
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What is fermentation used for?
Biogas- Ferment plant and animal waste which contain carbohydrate (produce methane and carbon dioxide). Bread- Yeast ferments the carbohydrates in the flour to release carbon dioxide (rise). Alcohol- yeast ferments sugar to form alchohol (ethanol).
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What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis os a series of chemical reactions that uses energy from sunlight to produce food.
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What is chlorophyll used for?
It absorbs sunlight and allows energy to be used to convery carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
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What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + Water =(Light energy)= Glucose + Oxygen
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How do plants used glucose?
Respiration- process releases energy form the glucose. Chemcials for Growth- Cellulose (cell walls), Nitrogen (make amino acids -proteins), Help make chlorophyll. Stored as Starch-stored in roots for when photosynthesis is slower e.g. winter
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What affects the rate of photosynthesis?
Amount of light, carbon dioxide level and temperature.
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How does light affect photosynthesis?
Light provides energy needed for photosynthesis . As the light level is raised the photosynthesis increases steadily to a certain point.
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How does carbon dioxide affect photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide is a raw material needed for photosynthesis. The amount of carbon dioxide will only increase the rate of photosynthesis to a certian point.
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How does temperture affect photosynthesis?
If the temperature is too low the enzymes needed for photosynthesis work slower. But if the plant gets too hot (45 degrees and up) the enzymes for photosynthesis become denatured.
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What is a transect?
Run a measuring tape between two fixed points. Start at one end of the transect and collect the data.
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What will you need to collect data?
Light Metre- too see the light intensity for that area. Quadrat- a square divied into 100 smaller squares( estimate percentage cover). Identification key- series of questions to help figure out what something is.
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the passive overall moment of particles from a region of their high concetration to a region of their low concertration.
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Example of diffusion.
When plants photosynthesise they use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce oxygen. These gases pass in and out of plant leaves by diffusion.
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What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the overall moment of water frrom a dilute to a more concertrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.
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Example of osmosis.
Plants take in water by osmosis. There's usually a higher concentration of water in the soil than there is inside the plant, so the water is drawn into the root by osmosis.
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What is active transport?
Active transport is the overall moment of chemicals across acell membrane from a region of lower concertration to a region of higher concentration using energy released by respiration.
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Example of active transport.
Plants take in minerals like nitrates throught their roots by active transport. The concertration of the minerals in root cells is normally higher than in the soil around them. Active transport moves minerls from the soil into the root cells.
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Card 2

Front

What is cytoplasm used for?

Back

Gel-like substance where proteins like enzymes are made. Some enzyme-controlled reactions take place in the cytoplasm e.g. anaerobic respirtation

Card 3

Front

What is the cell membrane used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the mitochondria used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is in an animal cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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