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What is an Ecosystem?
A physical environment with a particular set of conditions,plus all the organisms that live in it.
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Natural ecosystems have...
High biodiversity, many different species of plants and animals coexist in the same environment.
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What are artificial ecosystems designed for?
A particular purpose so they have lower biodiversity.
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What is a habitat?
The part of the physical environment where an animal or plant lives.
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What is a community?
The total number of individuals of all the different populations of plants and animals that live together in a habitat at any one time.
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What is a population?
The total number of individuals of the same species that live in a certain area.
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Ecosystems are...
Self supporting in all factors, they are the producers at the bottom of the food chain.
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Pooters are...
Containers used to collect insects easily, without harming them.
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Sweepnets are...
Used to collect insects in long grass or moderately dense woodland where there are lots of shrubs.
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Pitfall traps are...
Containers set into the ground that are used to catch small insects, like beetles.
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Quadrats are...
Square frames that have sides usually 0.5m long, used to count smaller, representative part of a population.
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When sampling, what must you do?
Take a big enough sample to make the results a good estimate, the larger the sample the more accurate the results. Sample randomly, the more random the sample the more likely it is to be representative of the population.
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What is the formula that can be used to estimate the total population size in the habitat?
Population size = No.1 in 1st sample (all marked) x no.2 in 2nd sample (marked and unmarked) ÷ No. in 2nd sample which were previously marked
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What is a transect line used for?
To map the distribution of organisms. It is used for studies of how species change across a boundary between habitats.
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What do you have to do when you use the Capture-recapture method?
Assume no organisms have died, immigrated or emigrated between sampling. Make sure identical sampling methods are used from one visit to the next. Make sure that marking the organisms does not affect their survival.
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Data from transect lines is presented how?
As a kite diagram.
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What do Kite Diagrams show?
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What is zonation?
The gradual change in the distribution of species across a habitat.
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Glucose and starch can be converted into....
Energy during respiration, proteins for growth and repair, starch, fats or oils that can be stored in seeds, cellulose, which is needed for plant cell walls.
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Glucose is soluble...
It can be transported around the plant as soluble sugar, but it must be converted into starch, which is insoluble, in order to be stored.
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Starch is a very useful storage molecule....
Because, it is insoluble so it odes not affect the water concentration inside the cells where it is stored, it does not move away in solution where it is stored.
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What do plants need to grow?
Light and warmth.
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What can photosynthesis be increased by?
The temperature, the light intensity, the carbon dioxide concentration.
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When and why do plants respire?
All the time, to break down glucose to release energy.
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Where does photosynthesis occur in plants?
Mainly in the leaves.
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How are leaves specially adapted?
Contains a pigment chlorophyll, to absorb light, in the chloroplasts. Has vascular bundles for support & to transport water to the cells & remove products of photosynthesis. Thin structure, so gases only have a short distance to travel. Stomata to allow g
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During photosynthesis...
Carbon Dioxide diffuses through the stomata and oxygen diffuses out through the stomata, water is absorbed through the roots.
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Name the leaf's 4 distinct layers:
Upper epidermis, palisade layer, spongy mesophyll and the lower epidermis.
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In a typical leaf...
The upper epidermis is transparent to allow sunlight through to the layer below, cells in the palisade layer are near the top of the leaf & packed with chloroplasts so they can absorb the max. amount of light. Spongy mesophyll has lots of air spaces.
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What do leaves contain?
Chlorophyll and other pigments which absorb different wavelengths of light.
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What is diffusion?
The movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
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Substances move in and out of...
Cell membranes by Diffusion.
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Diffusion is the...
Net (overall) movement
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The rate of diffusion is increased when:
There is a greater surface area of the cell membrane, there is a greater difference between concentrations and the particles have a shorter distance to travel.
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What happens, during the day, in plants?
CO2 is used up in photosynthesis. The concentration inside the leaves is lower than the concentration outside the leaves. CO2 diffuses into plants through the stomata on the bottom of their leaves. Oxygen diffuses from the plant into the atmosphere.
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What happens, during the night, in plants?
Photosynthesis stops, Oxygen diffuses into leaf cells and CO2 diffuses out of leaf cells.
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How is stomata adapted?
Open - to help increase the rate of diffusion of CO2 and oxygen. Close - to prevent excessive water loss in drought conditions.
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What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water from high concentration of water to low concentration of water through a partially-permeable membrane. Osmosis is a special type of diffusion involving water molecules.
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What is Net Movement?
From the area of high water concentration to the area of low water concentration. This gradually dilutes the solution.
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Osmosis in Red Blood Cells...
1)When red blood cells are in solutions with the same concentration as their cytoplasm, their retain their shape. 2)When in a weaker solution, they absorb water, swell up, and may burst.3)In a more concentrated solution, they lose water & shrivel up.
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Lysis is when...
In animal cells, without a cell wall to prevent water entering the cell, they absorb more and more water until they eventually burst.
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What is it called when red blood cells "shrivel" up?
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The cell wall in plant cells...
Prevents cells from bursting due to excess water, contributes to rigidity.
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What is the pressure of the water pushing against the cell wall called?
Turgor pressure.
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What is plasmolysis?
When cells lose a lot of water, the inside of the cell contracts.
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What do turgid & flaccid mean?
Rigid & not rigid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Natural ecosystems have...


High biodiversity, many different species of plants and animals coexist in the same environment.

Card 3


What are artificial ecosystems designed for?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is a habitat?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a community?


Preview of the front of card 5
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