B3h: Cloning

Human individuals are unique, yet modern science has the ability to create genetically identical copies of complex organisms. This item considers the advantages and disadvantages of using this scientific knowledge. Finding out about the techniques used to produce Dolly, the first cloned animal provides the opportunity to illustrate the use of ICT in science, ethical issues about contemporary scientific developments and the role of the science community in validating changes in scientific knowledge. Suggested practical and research activities to select from Assessable learning 

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What is cloning an example of?
Asexual reproduction
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What does cloning produce?
Genetically identical copies - clones
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Who was the first mammal cloned?
Dolly the sheep
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Give an example of naturally occurring clones
Identical twins
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Which two ways of plant reproduction cause clones?
Cuttings and Tissue Culture
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How do you take a cutting?
Branch from parent plant cut off&lower leaves removed.Stem planted in damp compost.Plant hormones often used 2 encourage new roots to develop.The cuttings usually covered in clear plastic bag to keep it moist&warm.New roots develop&new plant produced
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Name three plants that reproduce asexually.
Spider plant, potatoes and strawberries.
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How to spider plants reproduce asexually?
Spider plants grow new plants, called plantlets, on their stems
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How to potatoes reproduce asexually?
Potato plants produce tubers (the part we eat), which can grow new roots and shoots
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How to strawberry plants reproduce asexually?
Strawberry plants grow stems called runners, which have plantlets on them
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By what process was Dolly the Sheep produced?
Nuclear transfer
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What does nuclear transfer consist of?
Nuclear transfer involves placing the nucleus of a body cell into an egg cell.
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How was Dolly the sheep produced? (Detail)
nucleus removed from egg cell,egg cell nucleus replaced with nucleus from udder cell,egg cell given electric shock to make it divide,embryo implanted into a surrogate mother sheep&embryo grows into a clone of sheep from which the udder cell came
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Give three possible uses of cloning.
Mass producing animals with desirable characteristics, producing animals that have been genetically engineered to provide human products and producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy.
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What are the ethical issues that surround cloning on humans?
Be lots of surrogate pregnancies with high rates of miscarriage and stillbirth, clones of other animals have been unhealthy and often die prematurely, and a healthy clone might be psychologically damaged by the knowledge it has been cloned
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Give two advantages associated with the commercial use of cloned plants.
Can be sure of the characteristics of the plant since all plants will be genetically identical, and it is possible to mass produce plants that may be difficult to grow from seed.
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Give two disadvantages associated with the commercial use of cloned plants.
If plants become susceptible to disease or to change in environmental conditions then all plants will be affected and they will lack of genetic variation.
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Give two examples of being able to mass produce animals with desirable characteristics.
Animals that can produce medicine in their milk and animals that have suitable organs for transplantation into humans.
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What are the potential risks of using cloning technology?
There is some evidence that cloned animals might not be as healthy as normal ones and it is a new science which may have unknown consequences.
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Explain the advantage of being able to mass produce animals that can produce medicine in their milk.
They could be developed by genetic engineering and then cloned. Researchers have managed to transfer genes that produce useful proteins into sheep and cows. These means these animals can produce things like blood clotting agent factor VIII.
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What is blood clotting agent factor VIII used to treat?
Haemophilia.
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Explain the advantage of being able to mass produce animals that have suitable organs for transplantation into humans.
They could be developed by genetic engineering and then cloned. This would ensure constant supply of organs for transplant - organs from human donors are currently in short supply.
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What is the main issue surrounding the idea of being able to mass produce animals that have suitable organs for transplantation into human?
There is concerns that viruses could be passed from the animals to humans.
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Explain the advantage of being able to produce human embryos by cloning adult body cells.
They embryos could then be used to supply stem cells for stem cell therapy. These cells would have exactly the same genetic information as the parent - reducing the risk of rejection
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Describe the process of plant cloning by tissue culture.
Selection of characteristics, large number of small pieces of tissue, Using aseptic technique – keeping everything sterile and Using a suitable growth medium and warm, moist conditions
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Why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals?
Many plant cells retain ability to differentiate unlike animal cells which usually lose this ability at an early stage.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does cloning produce?

Back

Genetically identical copies - clones

Card 3

Front

Who was the first mammal cloned?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of naturally occurring clones

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which two ways of plant reproduction cause clones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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