B3h - Cloning

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What is Cloning?
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical copies (clones). Cloning is an example of an asexual reproduction.
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What does the term 'Natural Clones' mean?
Clones can be produced naturally, for example human twins can be genetically identical.
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Who was Dolly the Sheep?
Dolly the sheep was the first mammal cloned from an adult via the process of nuclear transfer which involves placing the nucleus of a body cell into an egg cell.
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What are the possible uses of Cloning?
Clonings could result in the mass production of animals with desired characteristics. To replicate animals that have been genetically engineered to provide human products. To produce human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy
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What are the risks involved in Cloning?
There is a low risk of success with cloning (there were 200 attempts to clone a sheep before dolly). Dolly died of conditions linked to an old age, at a young age. Research raises many moral/ethical issues about creating life. Cloning reduces genetic
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What are the ethical dilemmas concerning Human Cloning?
Religious views say that cloning humans is wrong. Cloning process is very unreliable - majority don't survive. Cloning animals have a limited life span and die early. Effect on the clone's mental health and emotional development is unknown.
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Outline the Cloning technique
1. an egg cell is taken from sheep A and nucleus is removed. 2. egg cell's nucleus is replaced with the nucleus from an udder cell. 3. Egg cell is given an electric shock to make it divide. 4. Embryo is implanted into a surrogate mother sheep to grow
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Describe plant cloning by tissue culture
1. Select a plant with desired characterics. 2.Scrape large numbers of small pieces of a plant tissue. Place it in a beaker with nutrients and hormones. The process has to be done aseptically to avoid rotting. 3. genetically identical plant-let will*
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What are the advantages of commercial use of cloned plants?
It is possible to mass produce plants that may be difficult to grow from seed. We can be sure of the characteristics of the plant since all the plants will be genetically identical.
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What are the disadvantages of commercial use of cloned plants?
If plants become susceptible to disease or to change in environmental conditions, then all plants are affected. It lacks genetic variation.
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Why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals?
Many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate into different cells where as many animal cells lose the ability to differentiate.
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Describe how Spider Plants reproduce asexually
They grow new plants on their stems called plantlets. If the plantlets are cut off and planted into soil, they grow
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Describe how Strawberries reproduce asexually
They grow stems called runners and they're spread over the grow and have buds which grow into plants called plantlets. These plantlets put down roots and grow into adult plants.
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Describe how potatoes reproduce asexually
If the tuber was left long enough, it would grow shoots and roots from the eye.
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Describe how to take a cutting
Short stem is cut off the parent plant. The end of the stem is dipped into plant hormone rooting powder. The hormones helps grow roots. The cutting is put into a pot containing sandy soil - a polythene bag is put over to keep moisture in.
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Card 2

Front

What does the term 'Natural Clones' mean?

Back

Clones can be produced naturally, for example human twins can be genetically identical.

Card 3

Front

Who was Dolly the Sheep?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the possible uses of Cloning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the risks involved in Cloning?

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