B3 - Unit 3

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What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water across a partially permeable membrane.
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What is active transport?
Allows cells to take in substances against the concentration gradient.
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Why are the lungs a good exchange surface?
1. Alveoli increase surface area. 2. Ventilated to maintain steep diffusion gradient. 3. Capillaries allow the diffusion of O2 into the lung and CO2 out.
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What happens when we breathe in?
1. Intercostal muscles contract. 2. Ribcage moves up and diaphragm flattens. 3. Thorax volume increases. 4. Thorax pressure decreases = air is drawn in.
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What happens when we breathe out?
1. Intercostal muscles relax. 2. Ribacage moves down and diaphragm becomes domed. 3. Thorax volume decreases. 4. Thorax pressure increases = air is forced out.
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What are the villi?
Increase surface area for absorption of soluble products in the gut. Have a good blood supply.
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What are the stomata?
Allow CO2 to diffuse into the leaf.
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What is transpiration?
When water vapour escapes through the stomata when the open to allow CO2.
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What do the guard cells do?
Close to prevent excess water loss.
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What do arteries do?
Carry blood away from the heart. Have thick walls.
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What do veins do?
Have thin walls, have valves to prevent back flow.
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What do capillaries do?
Narrow, thin walled vessels, carry blood through the organs and allow exchange.
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What does blood plasma do?
Transports dissolved food molecules, CO2, blood cells and urea.
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What do the red blood cells do?
Carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells.
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What do platelets do?
Help clot at the site of a wound.
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What is homeostasis?
Controlling temperature, blood glucose, water, ion content and waste levels.
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What is urea?
Produced in the liver from breakdowns of amino acids, removed by kidneys in urine and stored in bladder.
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How is body temperature maintained if you're too hot?
Sweat, blood vessels dilate and hairs lie flat.
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How is body temperature maintained if you're too cold?
Blood vessels constrict and hairs stand up.
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What is insulin?
Causes glucose to move from blood into cells. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is active transport?

Back

Allows cells to take in substances against the concentration gradient.

Card 3

Front

Why are the lungs a good exchange surface?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when we breathe in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens when we breathe out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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